The Incredible Human Foot: Introduction (02:23)
This segment orients viewers to the topic of human feet. Dr. George McGavin will look inside the human foot, consider the origins of our feet, and discover how our feet give us balance.
Anatomy Museum, Glasgow University (02:04)
Experts discuss the mobility and strength of our feet. Dr. Kartik Hariharan is a leading foot surgeon.
Foot Dissection (03:13)
Dr. Quentin Fogg leads the dissection team; he begins skin removal at the heel. The fat beneath the skin is specially packaged to maximize shock absorption.
Skin Sensitivity (02:20)
The skin on our feet perceives touch; a protective mechanism. Hariharan reveals how different parts of the foot have different sensations.
Review the two important functions of the soles of our feet. Prof. Rami Abboud reveals what happens to our feet when we walk and run, and the pressure force the movements produce.
Heel Strike Force (02:39)
Every year, up to 75% of regular runners suffer an injury; research suggests heel strike impact is a contributing factor. A second test reveals that we run differently when barefoot, changing force direction.
Weight-Bearing System (02:07)
Located beneath a layer of fat on the sole of our foot, the plantar fascia connects the hind foot to the toes.
Plantar Fascia (01:38)
Learn how this spring-like mechanism works. Dr. Neil McFarland explains the essential elements of foot physics.
Achilles Tendon (02:56)
Experts reveal various types of leg tissue and explain how power transfers from the calf muscle to the foot.
Unique Artist (03:16)
With practice, feet can achieve precision. Tom Yendell, born without arms, uses his feet as hands. See some of his artwork. McGavin tries to write his name with his feet.
Intrinsic Muscles (01:59)
Experts reveal the muscles that control the toes in different ways. Their development and flexibility determines the amount of precision and control in our feet.
Foot Evolution (04:07)
Experts compare orangutan feet and human feet to learn more about foot evolution. Learn about movement, the mid tarsal joint, and flexibility.
Human Feet: Rigid Platforms? (02:02)
Prof. Robin Crompton's pressure pad data suggests that our mid tarsal joint can bend when we walk. Ligaments, muscles, and tendons provide an adjustable stiffness.
Fogg explains ligament function and discusses why humans are successful upright walkers.
Flexible and Strong (03:13)
Eve Mutso started ballet at the age of 10. Experts discuss the muscles and joints that work together as she dances. Mutso has had several injuries and operations.
Human Big Toe (01:54)
Experts discuss the structure and purpose of the big toe. The toe is the end of a chain of mechanisms that store and transfer energy,
Balancing on Our Feet (01:57)
Prof. Ian Lorem explains the factors involved in our ability to stand upright, including proprioception.
McGavin undergoes a blindfold and balance experiment that reveals the importance of proprioception.
Poor Balance (03:28)
McGavin undergoes a second balance experiment. Lorem explains that muscle tensing distorted the purpose of activation information to the brain. Proprioception allows us to stand upright.
Hands & Feet Summary (01:32)
McGavin reflects on what he learned about the structures and mechanics of the human foot and hand during these two films.
Credits: Hands & Feet: The Incredible Human Foot (00:38)
Credits: Hands & Feet: The Incredible Human Foot
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