Religion as an Awesome Force (02:07)
Every person stands in some relationship to religion. Theists believe that God exists, agnostics believe that the existence of God cannot be proven, and atheists do not believe God exists.
Faith and Philosophy (03:09)
Philosophy of religion examines the phenomenon of faith through the prism of reason, whose lineage traces to the beginnings of philosophy. The Greeks explore the connection between faith and reason.
Religious Epistemology (03:33)
Religious epistemology studies whether we are justified in affirming religious propositions. The primary debate and ontological argument is whether God is real and if the perfect God exists.
God's Existence and Perfection (02:45)
Immanuel Kant disputes Saint Anselm and asserts that existence is not perfection, but only an affirmation of what is. Twentieth century philosophers believe in "necessary existence."
Cosmological Argument (04:12)
Aristotle's argument of first cause is that of the "unmoved mover." He influences Thomas Aquinas' view of God, and his teachings are the basis for all Christian philosophy.
Argument from Design (02:40)
The order and purposefulness of the world and the attributes of these works are the handiwork of the divine being. Aquinas proposes an architect of the universe as does William Paley.
Teleological Arguments Disputed (02:26)
Paley's argument runs afoul of Darwin's Theory of Evolution, but scientists support the argument that the universe is designed for life. David Hume claims the Argument from Design is flawed.
Natural Versus Revealed Religion (03:49)
Contemporary philosophers have asserted that personal experience of God is proof enough that God exists. Philosophers focus on "natural religion" over "revealed religion."
Theories of God's Omnipotence (03:24)
The conception of God as all-knowing, all-present, and all-powerful pervades Theism. Rene Descartes and Thomas Aquinas have differing views on this concept. The "Paradox of the Stone" confronts evil.
Theodicy and Evil (04:09)
Theodicy is an attempt to explain evil. Augustine formulated two influential replies to the problem of evil: evil is the lack of good and people have free will. This does not seem to apply to natural evil.
Science and Reason (02:42)
Underlying Theism is the uneasy relationship between faith and reason. Whether they are complimentary or are incompatible is strongly debated with science as a powerful cultural force.
Modern Philosophy and Ethics (02:45)
Until the Enlightenment, it was assumed that ethics was based on the will of God. Nineteenth century philosophers and the Humanist movement challenge the notions of morality and God.
Twentieth Century Philosophy (03:30)
In mainstream philosophy, Cartesian Dualism of matter and spirit has been replaced by Materialism. We are made only of matter; therefore, the soul does not survive death.
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