The Doctrine of Justification (02:40)
Dr. Tim George explains how this 1999 Catholic document addresses Justification and Sanctification, conflicting concepts that sparked the Protestant Reformation.
Martin Luther and The Gospel (02:38)
When he posted his 95 Theses on the church door at Wittenberg, Martin Luther sought to re-establish Jesus' gospel of salvation to the church.
Renaissance and Reform (01:55)
Martin Luther was born into a world transitioning between the Middle and Modern Ages. The printing press helped spread the Reformation throughout Europe.
Martin Luther's World View (02:27)
Growing up in rural Germany, Martin Luther's world view was shaped by myth and superstition.
A timeline of Luther's school years illustrates his extensive education at various institutions.
Martin Luther Becomes a Monk (06:08)
A conversion experience leads Luther to take vows as a monk. He questions the doctrine of plenary indulgences, and the church's role in salvation.
Return to the Gospel (03:24)
After studying the gospel closely, especially Paul's letter to the Romans, Luther concludes that grace, not deeds, are the key to salvation.
Church Abuses (04:55)
Martin Luther objects to questionable church appointments and new indulgences for financing the construction of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome.
Scripture as Ultimate Authority (03:41)
Luther challenges the infallibility of the Pope, and concludes that the Word of God is the ultimate religious authority.
Here I Stand (02:04)
Charles the V of Spain becomes the new emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, and the church issues the Edict of the Diet of Worms, a ban against Luther calling for his arrest.
The Fruitful Exile (03:39)
In hiding, Luther translates the New Testament into "Luther's German", a dialect that forms the basis of modern German language. His translation is widely disseminated through use of the printing press.
Peasants' Revolt of 1525 (02:25)
Luther's image was tarnished when peasants, inspired by his writings, revolted. He sided with authorities and urged them to "kill the peasants."
The Church Doctrine of Celibacy (03:16)
Luther contends that celibacy has no Biblical basis, marries and starts a family. In the Catechism of 1527, he supports the family's role in teaching the gospel.
Protestant reformers challenge the church dogma of transubstantiation. The reformers' various explanations for the Lord's Supper are reflected in different churches today.
The Rugsburg Confession (01:39)
In 1530, Catholic authorities reject the Rugsburg Confession, a document detailing the basic tenants of Protestantism. This splits the church into Protestant and Catholic factions.
Congregational Music (02:56)
Luther translates old Latin hymns and writes the vernacular mass. As a result, the use of hymn books becomes an integral part of worship.
The Legacy of Martin Luther (04:58)
Martin Luther's life work helped lead to democractic government due to his value of the individual. Dr. Timothy George also explains that Luther gave believers new life, hope, and peace.
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