"Citizen Kane" (02:45)
None of William Randolph Hearst's newspapers acknowledged Orson Welles' movie. It was a demonstration of how powerful he had become. Hearst did not report the news, he created it.
Control of Family Fortune (05:12)
After the death of his mother in 1919, Hearst and his architect Julia Morgan designed a castle to be built on "Camp Hill" on the California coast.
"The Lightkeeper's Daughter" (04:31)
Within months of his mother's death, Hearst bought new art, furniture, and antiques before the foundation of his castle had been laid. Hearst and his wife Millicent filmed a silent movie at San Simeon.
The Newsreel (03:10)
By the early 19th century, Hearst was the largest holder of newspapers and magazines. Pathé introduced short, factual films to America in 1911.
New Mass Media (05:40)
Hearst pioneered the serialized drama in 1914 and partnered with Adolph Zukor in 1919. Hearst was a revolutionary that knew what the public wanted and could shape the thoughts and feelings of the masses.
Marion Davies (04:59)
In 1922, Hearst produced a remake of the story of Mary Tudor. "When Knighthood Was in Flower" was one of the highest grossing moving pictures of the year. Davies was a chorus girl when she met Hearst.
Hearst's Double Life (03:05)
In 1917, Hearst gave Davies her own production company and a generous contract. She was the first screwball comedienne. Millicent began to suspect her husband was having an affair.
Fractured Family Life (04:13)
The castle at San Simeon was outlined by 1922. Millicent sought acceptance from the New York City elite. Hearst kept his affair with Davies out of the media.
Mrs. Hearst (03:30)
Millicent and Hearst kept their marriage together by living on opposite sides of the country. Hearst spent his time with Davies while his wife built her own life of philanthropy and high society.
Short, sensational stories became popular in the 1920s. Hearst did not like them but tried to compete with the "New York Daily Mirror."
Op-Ed Page (03:18)
Hearst began taking out bank loans to finance his constant spending. He sold small denomination corporate bonds to bring himself back from the edge of bankruptcy. He expanded his newspaper audience beyond the working class.
Hearst Metrotone News (04:37)
By 1928, Hearst had a network of radio stations in California that he used to promote his political views. He opened an all newsreel theater in New York City. He used corporate money to acquire real estate.
Casa Grande (03:05)
Hearst's castle at San Simeon was completed in 1925. He constantly built, redesigned, and acquired decorative art.
Life on the West Coast (08:10)
Davies was one of the most famous silent film stars. Hearst hired speech coaches to help with her stutter once actors began speaking on screen. He turned San Simeon into a resort for Hollywood stars.
Staying Connected (02:33)
Hearst worked on his empire using phone lines and telegraph cables that fed into a state-of-the-art switchboard. He did not like idle rich people and wanted his children to work. He kept carbon copies of all correspondence.
Great Depression (03:02)
The stock market crashed on October 29, 1929, triggering a world wide recession. Hearst was forced to cut his payroll and issue more stock in Hearst Consolidated. He advocated spending on public works projects.
"Buy American" (06:13)
Hearst supported Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1932. He opposed the formation of the NRA. The business community wanted the president to take a moderate approach that would save capitalism.
Complicated Love Triangle (04:12)
Hearst tried to control Davies' alcoholism. Her career was failing and Hearst would not marry her. Millicent valued her position and did not want to get divorced.
"Hearst: Labor's Enemy No. 1" (04:11)
Australian immigrant Harry Bridges led a worker revolt in 1934. Hearst blamed Roosevelt and paid reporters to root out communist sympathizers. Groups began boycotting Hearst's media companies.
Fighting Social Change (04:31)
In 1934, Hearst arranged to see Hitler while on vacation in Europe. He split with progressives and the American working class. The people chose Roosevelt and stopped buying Hearst's publications.
Stripped of Power (03:38)
Hearst continued to spend money while Hearst Commodities was failing. He owed money to banks, paper mills, and stockholders. He lost control of his empire and was forced to liquidate assets to pay creditors.
Final Indignity (03:25)
Hearst had to sell some of his newspapers and liquidate his art collection. He backed out of his divorce from Millicent and pending marriage to Davies through "Cosmopolitan" magazine.
Charles Foster Kane (05:10)
Hearst was angry that his mother, wife, and Davies were caricatured in Orson Welles' 1941 movie, "Citizen Kane." His depiction of Hearst as a lonely person was accurate.
Improving Financial Position (03:36)
Hearst remained an isolationist but supported the war after Pearl Harbor. His newspapers called for the forced internment of Japanese Americans.
Hearst's Final Years (04:14)
After WWII, Hearst and Davies returned to San Simeon before deciding to move to her Beverly Hills home to be closer to the hospital. Hearst secretly gave Davies a controlling interest in the Hearst Corporation before his death.
After Hearst's Death (02:30)
Davies sold her controlling interest in the Hearst Corporation to Millicent for one dollar and soon married Horace Brown.
Hearst's Legacy (03:49)
Hearst influenced the American way of life by shaping how culture is created and consumed.
Credits: Citizen Hearst: Part 2 (01:29)
Credits: Citizen Hearst: Part 2
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