Ottomans, Mughals, and Moors: Introduction (01:05)
Islam rose during the seventh century and spread from its roots in Saudi Arabia. This episode examines historic Islamic sites and the rise and fall of Muslim empires.
Dome of the Rock: 688-692 AD (02:34)
Jerusalem is a holy city for Jews, Christians, and Muslims. The Righteous Caliphs gained control of Jerusalem and Abd al-Malik built the Islamic shrine on the site of a Jewish temple; Suleiman the Magnificent added tiles to the exterior.
Umayyad Mosque: 706-715 AD (03:05)
Damascus was the seat of the first caliphate. The Umayyad modeled the Great Mosque of Damascus on the prophet Muhammad's house mosque, setting an enduring standard.
Mezquita de Córdoba: 784 AD (04:40)
Prince Abd al-Rahman established a caliphate in Moorish Spain. Muslim dynasties fought each other and the infidels. The Almoravids built the Torre del Oro and the Fatimids built several mosques in Cairo. Saladin united tribes and targeted Christians in the Holy Land.
Horns of Hattin: 1187 AD (04:51)
Saladin and his Muslim army defeated the Christian crusaders near the Sea of Galilee and re-captured Jerusalem. The eagle became a symbol for many Arab countries. Muslim influence waned on the Iberian Peninsula and the Moors were oppressed.
Walls of Constantinople: 1453 AD (03:28)
The Ottoman Turks conquered the city with the help of Orban's cannon and Mehmed II titled himself Kayser-i Rum. Islam advanced and Christians faced a period of psychological inferiority.
Topkapi Palace: 1459 AD (03:24)
Ottoman sultans lived and ruled from the royal compound. They kept harems, were attended by eunuchs, and practiced fratricide.
Suleymaniye Mosque: c.1550-1558 AD (07:18)
The mosque became the burial site of Suleiman the Magnificent in 1557. Suleiman dramatically expanded the Ottoman Empire; the military band was a form of psychological warfare. The Ottoman Army consisted of Janissaries, Sipahi, irregular forces, and akinci.
Siege of Rhodes: 1522 AD (08:07)
The Ottomans attacked the crusading knights and a six-month siege forced their surrender. Suleiman formed an alliance with Barbary pirates, who raided the coasts of Italy and Spain. He was a civic innovator and appointed Mimar Sinan as chief imperial architect.
Imam Mosque: 1187 AD (04:04)
The Safavid Empire threatened the Ottomans. Architects designed the mosque with a four-gateway format; the Persians introduced domes to Islamic architecture. The Mughals established their first capital in Agra; they built great mosques, forts, and tombs.
Taj Mahal: 1623-1653 AD (01:54)
Construction of the Mughal mausoleum complex involved 22,000 workers and covered 42 acres. Its design included Persian, Islamic, and Indian elements.
Agra Fort: 1565-1573 AD (06:48)
The fort was the center of Mughal power. Workers completed the red fort in Delhi 100 years later; it was the center of government until the British took control. The Ottoman Empire collapsed during World War I. An early rift between tribes split Islam.
Credits: Ottomans, Mughals, and Moors (00:38)
Credits: Ottomans, Mughals, and Moors
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