Bonnie Prince Charlie (02:24)
Charles Edward Stuart was born in Rome in 1720 and was seen as the next hope for the Stuarts to reclaim the British throne. He would go on to lead a legendary Highland army in the Jacobite Rising. He became a Scottish hero, despite spending less than a year of his life in Scotland.
Stuarts in Rome (05:56)
After the failed 1719 uprising, James Francis married Clementina, a Polish princess, and settled in Rome. Pope Clement XI viewed James as the rightful king of England and supported him with palaces and an allowance.
Stuarts as a Threat (05:14)
James and the Jacobites still supported a divided Britain with religious tolerance. British spy Mr. Walton exposed the two-year separation of James and Clementina, which damaged their image in Europe. Charles, at age 14, managed to restore it by fighting alongside the Spanish Army against Austria-controlled Naples.
Hanoverians in Britain (03:41)
King George did not speak English when he became king and his early reign was marked by financial and sexual scandals. George I died in 1727 and his son George II took over and continued to paint the Stuarts as a dangerous, Catholic threat.
Early British Intelligence (05:40)
King George II expelled the Tories from parliament, suspecting many were secret Jacobites. Whig party leader Robert Walpole was made the first prime minister and worked to protect the Hanoverians from threats and scandals. He missed the strong support of Sir John Hind Cotton, a displaced English Tory.
Charles in Paris (04:26)
In February 1744, Charles arrived in Paris hoping to join the French invasion to restore the Stuarts. But the discovery of Cotton and a storm in the English Channel stopped the plans. Charles attempted to convince King Louis XV to provide him with a force to join a Scottish uprising.
Charles' Invasion Plan (02:37)
In June 1745, Charles gathered an arsenal of weapons as he father raised funds back in Rome. George II and a large portion of the army were out of the country, so the English Jacobites told Charles it was the right time to invade.
Charles in Scotland (07:16)
After convincing the clan chiefs to join him, Charles and his Jacobite army took Edinburgh. The Jacobites defeated the first government army they faced and began to be seen as a true threat to the Hanoverians. The Jacobites reached Derby in December 1745, but were surrounded by government troops.
Charles' Defeat (03:57)
Not knowing that King Louis XV was sending 15,000 troops to assist, Charles agreed to leave Derby and headed north to Glasgow to regroup. They headed south again and were defeated by the Duke of Cumberland's troops at the Battle of Culloden. Charles was rescued by a French ship.
Charles' Second Invasion Plan (03:41)
Charles viewed the defeat as a setback and began planning a second invasion of England. He asked Louis XV for military support and began working to get French popular support. Louis XV's support for Charles waned and his brother Henry gave up the Stuart cause to become a Cardinal.
Charles' Arrest (02:17)
The terms of a treaty with Austria required Louis XV to dispel Charles from France, but he refused to leave. Louis XV had him arrested and imprisoned. He agreed to leave and traveled around Europe.
Charles' Desperation (02:31)
In 1750, Charles traveled to London in disguise as part of the spying plot. He was involved in multiple schemes to replace the British crown by various European powers. He converted to Protestantism as a political move, but nothing changed.
Seven Years War (02:41)
The French planned to invade England and met with Charles about the plan. The French reluctantly agreed to allow him to lead the invasion of England, but he did not show up the day the ships departed. The French fleet was defeated at the Battle of Quiberon Bay in 1759.
Charles' Death (06:06)
Charles returned to Rome in 1766. Pope Clement XIII refused to recognize Charles as his father's successor to the throne of England. He died in 1788 at his family's palace in Rome and the Stuart line ended with Henry's death in 1807.
Credits: Rebellion: The Stuarts In Exile: Episode 2 (00:26)
Credits: Rebellion: The Stuarts In Exile: Episode 2
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