British Colonies (07:15)
In 1763, Great Britain had control of the east coast of America. Spain was forced to relinquish La Florida, which the British split into East and West Florida. James Grant became governor of East Florida; he struggled to grow corps and convince people to move to the new colony.
Slavery in British Florida (03:53)
The British system of chattel slavery came to East and West Florida when the British gained control. The free black and native populations of Fort Mose and St. Augustine struggled to survive in Cuba.
Harsh Governance in East Florida (09:21)
Colonel Patrick Tonyn became the new governor of East Florida and had numerous clashes with settlers. His rule was strict and he mistreated slaves. Andrew Turnbull established one of the largest plantations in the colony with more than 1,400 indentured workers.
British Florida and the Revolution (07:55)
Most of East and West Florida remained loyalist during the American Revolution. Those who supported the war against the British found support from Spain. Bernardo de Galvez gathered and funded a navy that fought against the British.
Loyalists in East Florida (06:33)
Thousands of loyalist refugees from America fled to East Florida and resettled in undeveloped areas. Modern maritime archaeologists are uncovering a shipwreck thought to be loyalists fleeing to St. Augustine in 1782. As a reward for their help in the war, America gave Florida back to Spain.
Return of Spanish Florida (03:46)
Those who left St. Augustine for Cuba and Mexico returned in the 1760s. Slavery remained in the new United States of America and slaves began escaping to Spanish Florida. Amid pressure from Thomas Jefferson, Spain stopped granting asylum to escaped slaves in 1790.
America and Spanish Florida (05:29)
In the early 1800s, tensions were rising between America and Spanish Florida. Just before the War of 1812, a militia from Georgia sought to capture Florida during the Patriots War. The black militia of St. Augustine and a group of Seminole allies broke the stalemate between Spanish and American forces.
End of Spanish Florida (01:45)
Southern states called for the punishment of free black and Seminole militias. General Andrew Jackson led an attack during the First Seminole War. After numerous conflicts and rebellions, Spain relinquished control of Florida to the Americans in 1821.
American Florida (06:16)
The Americans forced Native American tribes in Florida out of the territory, into hiding, or into extinction. Escaped slaves and free blacks fled to the Bahamas.
Credits: The 14th and 15th Colonies: Episode 4 (01:39)
Credits: The 14th and 15th Colonies: Episode 4
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