Approach to Personality (06:01)
Richard Evans provides a brief biography of Dr. Gardner Murphy, including his work at Columbia University and at the Menninger Foundation. Different approaches to solving a problem should not lead to disorganization. Freudian, Lewinian, and biological theories of psychology could be applied to a patient depending on whichever is most functional; eclecticism should be demobilized.
Motivation is a relational conception; both the environment and the client need equal attention. The central nervous system is just as important as visceral elements. Dr. Murphy explains how the concept of the homeostatic model is outdated because the more complicated the organism the more it focuses on future relationships and anticipated events.
Dr. Gardner explains his interest in examining how the first and second signal systems of Ivan Pavlov apply to the primary and secondary processing of Sigmund Freud. B.F. Skinner's conceptions of shaping, principle, and reinforcement are imperative to use in systematic personality theory. The purpose of psychology is to be realized and fulfilled.
Systematic Learning Theory Absence (01:33)
Use the tested theories of today while understanding that it will be outgrown. There is more than one kind of learning. If psychologists waited for integrated learning theory, there would be no research produced.
The receptor systems and its functions mediate contact and behavior should be understood in terms of reception. Pioneers in perception include Hermann Rorschach and Wolfgang Kohler. Ego relates to the dynamic processes organized around one's individuality.
Sigmund Freud's Theories (03:41)
Dr. Murphy believes Freud was one of the greatest minds in psychology and should use his writings as a tool. William James does not incorporate unconscious dynamics.
Carl Jung's Theories (01:53)
Dr. Murphy feels Jung's cross-cultural studies, symbolism, and archetypes are especially relevant. The theory of racial unconsciousness needs to be clarified before it can be used. Introvert Extrovert theories are overdone and will grow obsolete.
Alfred Adler's Theories (02:53)
Adler's work is enormously important, especially the development of the compensation idea, power, and social psychology. What often manifests in a sexual manner is a struggle for prestige and power values. Adler did not realize the social nature of the compensatory process.
Gestalt Movement (08:38)
Descendants theorize on the patterned expression of personality, the principle of membership character, and going integration. No one represents a pure Gestalt approach. Dr. Murphy explains his more comprehensive version of field theory and how it differs from Kurt Lewin's. The definition of the event in personality depends on what is going on in the sociocultural world as well as what is occurring biologically.
The biology of human nature is a limiting condition. With the invention of culture, human beings have created a transfigured nature where symbolic life plays an enormous role. Individual or collective pressures coming from the first or second human natures break the conservativism of human societies.
Early Study on Creativity (03:27)
Young creative individuals, juvenile delinquents, and schizophrenics experience a lot of rejection. Dr. Murphy disagrees with the study and emphasizes the need for research into the difference between reproductive and productive thought. Psychology does not have the openness and richness to develop problems of a large magnitude.
Credits: Dr. Gardner Murphy (00:49)
Credits: Dr. Gardner Murphy
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