Technical Aspects: Projectional Radiography Development (05:36)
William Morgan presented the earliest known x-rays in 1785. Heinrich Geissler created glass cylinders that emit light by fluorescence; William Crookes improved tube evacuation. Eugen Goldstein verified cathode rays in 1876. Wilhelm Röntgen produced the first photograph using x-rays; x-ray imaging became a diagnostic tool and radiation protection became a concern.
Technical Aspects: X-Radiation (03:56)
Learn where x-radiation is located on the electromagnetic spectrum. Conventional x-ray generators use a vacuum tube and high voltage; 1% of resulting energy is emitted as x-rays. X-rays are absorbed according to radiological density; x-ray photons can disrupt molecular bonds.
Technical Aspects: Imaging Process (05:18)
The area to be x-rayed is placed between the x-ray source and the image receptor. Computerized and digital radiography became commonplace for medical applications in the 1990s. Learn the basic structure of x-ray film, benefits of digital radiography, and elements of phosphor plate radiography.
Operations: Overview (02:05)
Projectional radiographs help experts detect skeletal system pathology and disease processes in soft tissue; hard x-rays are preferred in medical diagnostics.
Operations: Safety Protocols and Contrast Agents (03:35)
X-ray imaging carries minimal risks when properly conducted; special precautions are used for expectant mothers. Clinical and dental x-rays are typically safe for patients with implanted devices. Common agents in projectional radiography include barium sulfate and iodine-based agents; rare complications may occur.
Operations: General Operations (03:45)
Primary exposure technique factors include milliamperage, exposure time, and kilovoltage peak. Patient age, condition, and pathologic condition affect the necessary amount of milliamps; milliamperage does not directly affect image brightness. Kilovoltage peak alters the penetrating ability of the x-ray beam.
Operations: Focal Spot, Geometry, and Grids (03:39)
Secondary factors affect radiation reaching the IR and image quality. The physical dimensions of the focal spot range from 0.5 to 1.2 millimeters. Patient position relative to the source changes magnification and field of view. Grids placed between the patient and x-ray films provide contrast.
Operations: Beam Restriction and Tube Filtration (03:03)
Decrease the area of the x-ray beam to reduce radiation exposure; collimators are the most common restriction device. X-ray beam filtration is a vital protection feature for patients.
Interpretation: Radiopacity (02:31)
Object radiopacity determines image opacity; radiopacity depends on atomic number, density, and physical opacity. Compare images of bone, fat, gas, and metal.
Interpretation: Roentgen Signs and Summation Shadows (05:08)
Patient position is important for viewing the final image; evaluate shadows. Roentgen signs describe radiologic abnormalities. Summation shadows occur when objects in different planes are superimposed. Review the progress of projectional radiography discussed in this film.
Credits: Medical Imaging: Technical Aspects, Operation and Interpretation: Radiology, Part 1 — Projectional Radiography (01:19)
Credits: Medical Imaging: Technical Aspects, Operation and Interpretation: Radiology, Part 1 — Projectional Radiography
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