Racism and Police Violence (08:29)
In March 1965, the police attacked peaceful protesters in Selma, Alabama; several months later President Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act. Riots broke out in L.A.; Martin Luther King Jr. was shocked by the violence. Cornel West states, racism is a national issue of police terror, unemployment, and segregation.
Gaining Black Political Power (06:33)
Race riots influenced the spread of ideas in the South. In 1965, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee sent activists to Lowndes County, Alabama. Stokely Carmichael educated black southerners about voting and set up a new political party.
Rise of Black Power (05:30)
Unlike King, Carmichael believed nonviolence would not be effective; he adopted the "black power" phrase. Black power groups with various views organized across the country, and the phrase began to signal a shift in consciousness. Other groups denounced black power as violent, fearing it was too confrontational and alienated white people.
Malcom X and Black Panther Movement (05:45)
Kareem Abdul-Jabbar argues that Malcom X inspired black people to think about themselves in new ways and reject ways of thinking that imprisoned them. Malcom X represented a fierceness and pride that inspired a new generation. The Black Panther Party started as a way to protect black communities from police violence and fight for self-determination.
Community Work and Cultural Change (07:34)
Hasan Kwame Jeffries explains that although the Black Panthers' main focus was serving their communities, their open threat to police forced the FBI to begin a campaign to divide and destroy the party. Ideas about black power and black culture spread.
Martin Luther King Jr.'s Activism in Chicago (09:11)
King's views on nonviolence became unpopular, but he still fought for equality. He focused on housing integration, where policy effectively segregated the city. King led a march into a white neighborhood and the hateful and violent reaction was astonishing.
King's Legacy and Black Cultural Growth (07:35)
King focused on economic justice; he was shot while in Memphis. Jesse Jackson explains that although King was unpopular, he became a hero and policy changes soon led to more freedom and economic opportunities for black people. Black culture continued to expand into new areas of mainstream American culture.
Affirmative Action (03:20)
Henry Louis Gates Jr. and Sheila Jackson reflect on their time at Yale University, and the opportunity their acceptance represented. They were involved in the Black Student Alliance and felt part of the change that King and the Black Power Movement had brought about.
Credits: Out of the Shadows (Part 1) (01:15)
Credits: Out of the Shadows (Part 1)
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