Missing Matter: Is Consciousness Inexplicable— Introduction (00:53)
In this lecture, Tara Shears will explain fundamentals of matter, the mystery of antimatter, and how we know it exists.
Fundamentals of Particle Physics (04:16)
Matter is made of patterns of six quarks and six leptons. Shears explains the weak force communicated by force-carrying particles, the strong force communicated by gluons, electromagnetism communicated by photons, and gravity responsible for the large scale universe structure. The Higgs Field is an energy field that gives fundamental particles mass as they pass through it.
Antimatter Basics (02:15)
The Standard Model explains how matter, forces, and the Higgs Field work together. Every particle has a potential antimatter equivalent. When matter meets antimatter it annihilates, releasing enormous energy amounts.
Discovery of Antimatter (04:58)
Einstein's quadratic equation for the Theory of Special Relativity has two solutions for mass. Quantum physicists combined Special Relativity with quantum theory to describe fundamental particle movement, resulting in the Dirac Formula. Hear how Carl Anderson discovered a positive electron while measuring cosmic rays.
Antimatter Relevence (02:21)
Half of the universe was made of anti-matter particles at the time of the Big Bang. They met matter and annihilated, producing photons that split into more particle and anti-particle pairs. As the universe expanded, it cooled and photons lost the energy to create pairs.
CP Violation (02:12)
Particle physicists studying why matter and antimatter are different use the Charge Parity Violation. Matter and antimatter behave differently under the weak force. Shears uses an Escher print to illustrate the parity and charge inversion.
Search for a Theory (03:16)
Theories have not predicted a difference between matter and antimatter, but experiments found differences. Shears explains that no evidence of large antimatter areas has emerged on the cosmic microwave background.
AMS Experiment (03:52)
Anti-matter might annihilate in the atmosphere before reaching Earth. A particle physics experiment housed on the International Space Station measures cosmic rays and particle types. Two mechanisms that can give antimatter high energy include dark matter annihilation and pulses with strong electromagnetic fields.
AMS Experiment Initial Results (01:44)
Particle physicists hope to see dark matter annihilation. Shears explains a graph in which the blue curve is a distribution typical of pulses; the red curve shows dark matter behavior. Half of dark matter mass will become antimatter.
CERN Antimatter Experiments (01:33)
Proton beams collide with the Large Hadron Collider and create new fundamental particles, including antimatter. Information around the collision is recorded to try to produce a theory.
LHCB Experiment (05:06)
Shears discusses a Large Hadron Collider experiment studying B quarks and explains precision instrumentation and methods used to measure short lived particles. Experts try to identify particles with B sub S mesons decaying to a pion and kaon. The decay's electrical charge tells whether it is antimatter.
Antiproton Decelerator (03:23)
Shears describes a CERN accelerator creating antiprotons. Particle physicists combine them with antielectrons to make antihydrogen atoms. The ALPHA experiment measures antihydrogen using a magnetic bottle that suspends atoms, preventing annihilation.
Finding Antimatter Mathematically (03:10)
Particle physicists do not have a theory predicting antimatter, so they added it to the Standard Model. Shears explains how the equation produced a consistent value for the difference between matter and antimatter. Together with estimates of matter in the universe and cosmologist equations, physicists have only found a galaxy’s worth of antimatter.
Supersymmetry Theory (02:23)
Quarks do not explain antimatter but leptons, neutrinos, or new physics could hold the answer. Shears explains a theory containing the relationship between particles comprising matter and particles conveying forces. It predicts new "partner" particles that may explain dark matter or universe beginnings, but lacks evidence.
Antimatter Outlook (02:35)
Particle physicists continue experimenting to gather data for a theory. The AMS may find dark matter; initial LHC experiments show the existing theory cannot explain antimatter. A new LHC run using higher energies will see further into the universe.
Credits: Missing Matter: Is Consciousness Inexplicable? (00:07)
Credits: Missing Matter: Is Consciousness Inexplicable?
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