Evolution of Secular Music (04:56)
The change from primitive sounds and today’s concert music is a continual process which includes the great composers. Religion and music inspire each other as heard in this Jewish hymn.
Early Christian Music (04:33)
The traditions and practices of sacred music spread to Rome and Byzantine with the rise of Christianity as seen in the Greek Orthodox Easter service and the Gregorian chant of Pope Gregory.
Roman and French Chant Melodies (04:05)
The music sense of tranquility parallels the Romanesque architecture. Leonin of Paris, the first composer, bases his music on early Gregorian chants but adds his own sections called “organum.”
Estampie Dance Tunes (02:14)
The church is the training ground for all musicians. Sacred music borrows from secular music. The clergy enjoyed estampie music for its complexity which took their minds off licentious thoughts.
Polyphonic Music: Gothic Architecture (03:24)
Leonin’s successor, Perotin, composes polyphonic style music for the Notre Dame Cathedral, including “Viderunt Omnes.” Gothic architecture parallels the rhythm and order of polyphonic music.
Music of the Bavarian Monks (03:21)
The music of the time is not all divinely inspired. The thirteenth century Benedictine Monks of Bavaria celebrate wine and women in song. The Carmina Burana manuscript contains 200 pieces.
Troubadours and Minstrels (04:24)
The troubadours and minstrels sing universal themes of love and war. These poet musicians include German Walther von der Veogelweide and his “Palestine Song” about a Holy Land pilgrimage.
Fourteenth Century Ars Nova (04:27)
Philippe de Vitry is known for his Ars Nova or “new art” and his standardizing musical notation and rhythms. Guillaume de Machaut adds to this dry style in "Il m'est avis" and "Quant je suis mis."
Notre Dame Mass of Machaut (03:37)
Guillaume de Machaut's first complete setting of the mass survives still today, including "Gloria" from the Notre Dame Mass.
Francesco Landini of Italy (05:04)
A blind organist for the San Lorenzo church, Landini, uses improvisation in “Questa Fanciulla Amor”; thus many forms exist today. The French style influences his ballad “L’alma Mia Piange.”
English Contribution: The Carol (02:45)
The English contribution to music includes the joyous and bright carol. Although there are different sorts, they all contain the refrain. Carols include other themes, not just Christmas ones.
English Composer John Dunstable (07:17)
Dunstable’s influence includes giving importance to the “top nine” in a piece of music, creating harmonized melodies. He wrote “Veni Sancte Spiritu” for Henry VI’s coronation as King of France.
Guillaume Dufay (04:27)
Fifteenth century musicians dominated the Netherland cathedral cities of Brugge, Cambrai, and Antwerp. Dufay of Cambrai requested his “Ave Regina Coelorum” be sung at his funeral.
Gospel Music (01:09)
Although the gospel music that the Los Angeles Interdenominational Choir sings sounds different, it still contains the same spirit and inspiration as earlier music.
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