Breakfast Food Comparison (02:07)
Lisa's fruit and muesli keeps her full for hours due to a slow insulin release. Alma's sugary cereal causes a blood sugar spike, causing her to feel hungry again.
Sugar Attraction (02:15)
Sweet taste tells us there is energy in food and awakens primeval instincts. All species are programmed to eat when food is available to gain reserves for times of scarcity. A study finds worms die earlier when eating more sugar.
In Conflict with Instincts (01:58)
Adults shouldn't eat more than 60 grams of sugar daily. View amounts of sugar hidden in processed foods. Sugar is the main cause of weight gain in the U.S.
Metabolizing Glucose vs. Fructose (02:57)
In the 1970s, the U.S. replaced cane sugar with high fructose corn syrup. Fructose doesn't affect the brain but goes to the liver and is stored as fat, while glucose signals satiation. Fructose leaves us feeling hungry.
Fruit vs. Fruit Juice (02:22)
Household sugar is a mix of fructose and glucose. Fruit usually contains equal amounts and provides vitamins and fiber, as well as sugar energy. Sugar content in fruit juice is doubled, causing a higher intake than when eating whole fruit.
Willpower Against Sugar (01:53)
A University of Vienna experiment showed that visualizing foods before eating decreases intake.
Artificial Sweeteners (02:42)
Elizabeth tried to lose weight by eating artificial sweeteners, but gained more; sweeteners trigger tongue receptors. The sugar and sweetener industries accuse one another of causing health issues.
Artificial Sweetener Trap (03:00)
Few controlled studies have been done on weight control effectiveness; one showed that people eating low calorie foods tended to "make up" deficits. Elizabeth ate larger portions of diet foods to feel satiated; finally she had gastric bypass surgery.
Sugar's Effect on the Brain (03:46)
The hypothalamus regulates 80% of daily activity. Processing emotions is related to satiation; an MRI records subject reaction to happy, neutral, and sad images. Sugar calms the urge to eat but artificial sweeteners don't provide a feeling of satiation.
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