Trans-Species Pathogenic Threats (02:01)
Mystery viruses H7N9, Mers-CoV, and Ebola recently emerged from the animal kingdom. Scientists race against the clock to learn their origins, and how to prevent their spread.
Pandemic Response System (01:40)
WHO specialists monitor new pathogenic strains. They currently follow H7N9 in China using interactive maps.
The Mers-CoV was first identified in Saudi Arabia. Pilgrims to Mecca could spread it globally.
Investigating Viral Origins (01:47)
Dr. Peter Daszak tracks new pathogens transmitted from animals. The Mers-CoV is linked to camels and bats.
Pandemic Fears (00:49)
Hear mortality statistics of the Spanish Flu. Since then, improved sanitary conditions, vaccinations, and antibiotics have helped control outbreaks.
Virus Hot Spots (02:20)
In the 1980s, HIV proved epidemics are still a threat. Mers and N7N9 follow a similar emergence pattern; animals transmit pathogens in areas of rapid habitat change.
Filovirus Reservoirs (04:14)
Central Africa is home to Ebola and Marburg. Franceville International Center for Medical Research (CIRMF) scientists collect bat species to test for hemorrhagic fever pathogens.
Ebola Reservoir (00:56)
Researchers first believed monkeys harbored the virus. In Gabon in 1996, children became infected from a chimpanzee.
Ebola Outbreaks (00:52)
The virus appears in remote Central Africa. Scientists test animals near infected villages to search for its origins.
Ebola Research (02:14)
CIRMF researchers study hemorrhagic fever blood in local laboratories. They found the virus in bats; they study all viruses specific to each species to learn about replication.
Search for the Next Pandemic (01:32)
Daszak says there are 300,000 undiscovered viruses. His team analyzes new strains from viral hot spots at Columbia University.
Mers Virus Origins Research (02:17)
Virology Professor Ian Lipkin and Daszak study bats known to carry the Mers virus. They explain the human-to- human transmission process and why pandemics must be halted in the wild.
SARS Panic (01:05)
In 2003, a pathogen in the Coronavirus family was transmitted to humans. Lipkin recalls the deserted Beijing streets.
SARS Outbreak Epicenter (01:19)
Professor Malik Peiris recalls the first case in Hong Kong. The patient infected 15 other people who traveled abroad and started outbreaks.
Avian Flu Outbreak (02:14)
Hong Kong took H7N9 seriously in 2013. The virus wasn't yet transmittable among humans, but authorities feared it would combine with seasonal flu and become highly infectious.
Viral Vectors (02:40)
Wild birds were H7N9 reservoirs; poultry transferred the virus to humans. Daszak observes unsanitary conditions and potential high exposure at a chicken market in China.
Crossing the Species Barrier (02:27)
Chinese poultry farmers bring free range birds inside the house, risking infection. Viruses develop faster than vaccines.
Testing for Avian Flu (01:12)
Daszak takes samples from chickens on a Chinese farm, searching for viral hot spots
Controversial Pathogen Research (02:17)
In a race against viruses, Dutch scientists are creating mutations of H7N9—sparking bioterrorism fears.
Vaccination Research (02:36)
Dutch scientists mutated H5N1 for human-to-human transmission. A project leader believes his work in creating anti-viral drugs outweighs bioterrorism threats.
Creating a Monster (01:08)
WHO recently lifted a moratorium on lab engineered viruses. A French bioterrorism expert says the pandemic risk outweighs research benefits.
Ebola Threat (01:51)
A new viral strain has surprised WHO. Officials meet to discuss its spread in West Africa.
Guinea Cases (01:18)
Ebola was reported in Conakry—the first time it's reached a major city. A French virologist explains how infection pathways could overwhelm the health system.
Ebola "Village" (02:13)
At a Doctors Without Borders facility in Conakry, doctors care for the dying and isolate potential patients. Learn about protective measures during testing and diagnosis.
International Response (00:42)
A French doctor discusses the importance of halting Ebola's spread.
Ebola Survivor (01:11)
Doctors cured a few cases in June 2014; Bakary Oulare describes his brush with death.
One Health Concept (00:43)
With viruses transmitted from bats and birds, scientists recognize animal and human interdependence—a link shedding new light on environmental degradation.
Rat Virus Research (01:12)
French researchers study rats in Thailand. Habitat change caused several species extinctions—but new illnesses are emerging in villages.
Rodent Viral Threat (01:03)
As agriculture decreases pathogenic diversity in Thailand, remaining strains strengthen and transmit to fleas, ticks, and mites—increasing human infection risk.
New Pandemic Paradigm (01:17)
The One Health approach to pathogens provides incentive to slow environmental changes and habitat destruction.
Credits: Epidemics: the Invisible Threat (01:09)
Credits: Epidemics: the Invisible Threat
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