Brother Outsider Introduction (02:55)
Bayard Rustin was a significant nonviolent influence in the Civil Rights movement, and a leader in several subsequent social change movements.
Angelic Troublemaker (02:07)
Rustin was born in a segregated Pennsylvania town in 1912. He had white friends, but was not allowed to see them outside of school.
Rustin's Early Life (02:29)
Rustin's Quaker grandmother raised him and taught him to stand up to injustice. He began his justice work as a child.
Rustin's College Education (02:36)
At Wilberforce, Rustin learned public speaking and organized a strike. In Harlem, he joined a quartet to pay for his college education. Rustin joined the Communist Party.
Muste Boys (02:24)
Rustin left the Communist Party when they dropped their concern for black people. Rustin worked for A.J. Muste in nonviolent political action.
Attacking Racial Injustice (02:58)
Rustin said, "One can react three ways: slavish acceptance, armed resistance, or nonviolent resistance." KKK members attend a rally. (Graphic images)
Rustin's Partner (01:24)
Davis Platt recalls meeting Rustin at a discussion about racial injustice; they made an instant connection.
Conscientious Objection (02:34)
Rustin was sentenced to three years in prison for refusing to submit to the draft.
Writing in Code (01:30)
While Rustin was in prison, he and Platt kept in touch. After he was released, they openly lived together.
A. Philip Randolph (02:59)
Randolph taught Rustin how to connect the labor movement and racial progress. A.J. Muste pressured Rustin to suppress his homosexuality.
Chain Gang Sentence (01:28)
In 1947, Rustin spent 30 days on a chain gang for sitting next to a white man on a bus. He wrote about it later, resulting in North Carolina ending the use of chain gang punishment.
Rustin in India (02:08)
Rustin traveled to India to attend a nonviolence conference. Rustin met many leaders from the independence movement.
Rustin's Sexuality (01:30)
Rustin was openly gay. Platt ended their relationship after four years because Rustin was interested in many people.
Rustin Arrested Again (03:37)
Rustin was arrested in Pasadena for sex perversion. Rustin left the League of Reconciliation. A psychiatrist advised him to separate his sexuality from his advocacy work.
Montgomery Bus Boycott (02:59)
Martin Luther King participates in a nonviolent protest. Alabama Public Service Commission President, C.C, Owen vows to enforce segregation laws. Rustin offered King advice.
Adviser to Dr. King (01:32)
When Rustin's Pasadena arrest came to light, he removed his counsel to preserve the movement.
Nuclear Disarmament (03:32)
Rustin led a protest to Algeria, where France was planning to test a nuclear bomb. The group was detained, and the test proceeded as planned.
Chicago Convention (03:13)
In 1960, Rustin was asked to plan protests at the Chicago Democratic Convention. Rep. Adam Clayton Powell used Rustin's Pasadena arrest to force him out of the movement.
Rustin Felt Betrayed (01:29)
King may have sided with Powell for political reasons, but Rustin felt personally betrayed by the lack of support.
Separation vs. Integration (02:06)
Rustin and Malcolm X debated Civil Rights tactics. Malcolm X thought separation would never work; Rustin wanted to show that Civil Rights are everyone's battle.
Planning the March (02:02)
A. Philip Randolph planned a March on Washington in 1941 to get work opportunities for blacks, but it was canceled. Rustin organized the 1963 march.
Not Backing Down (02:57)
Three weeks before the march, Strom Thurmond described Ruston's Pasadena charge. Ruston received full support from the activists, including King.
Master of Organization (02:32)
The March on Washington helped bring King and Rustin back together.
March on Washington (04:51)
See archival footage of the March on Washington; more than 200,000 participated.
Politics and Power (02:27)
The March on Washington brought Rustin into the spotlight.
Rustin's Stance on Vietnam (02:12)
To continue working with L.B.J. on Civil Rights, Rustin refrained from participating in the antiwar movement.
Rustin's Compromise (02:40)
Many activists saw Rustin's silence on Vietnam as compromising his ideals; others thought that embracing the antiwar movement risked what they had achieved for civil rights.
Marrying Civil Rights to Organized Labor (02:04)
Rustin brought King into a Memphis Sanitation Workers' strike which erupted in chaos. King wanted to return for a nonviolent strike.
Martin Luther King Assassinated (02:45)
The day after the second Memphis strike, King was assassinated. Rustin organized a memorial march for him the following day.
Violence in the Movement (03:22)
Violence appeared in the Civil Rights movement. Rustin condemned the black power movement for teaching hate.
Rustin Criticized (01:50)
Black Nationalists condemned Rustin because he sought to negotiate. Rustin was considered a radical by the political establishment.
Rustin's Activism (02:31)
Walter Naegle recalls meeting his partner, Rustin, and the work Rustin did in his later life with Russian Jews.
Rustin's Commitment (02:31)
Rustin never stopped working for justice and freedom for all people. In the last years of his life, he worked in the gay rights movement.
Credits: Brother Outsider: The Life of Bayard Rustin (01:33)
Credits: Brother Outsider: The Life of Bayard Rustin
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