Introduction: Inside the Israel Museum, Jerusalem (01:42)
The Israel Museum holds religious relics found beneath Jerusalem.
Crucified Man (01:13)
Archaeologists found a box with bones of a first century AD Hebrew man; an iron nail pierced his anklebone. This is the only archaeological find of a crucified man and challenges the traditional image of crucifixion.
Tradition of Crucifixion (02:32)
We follow Christians on the Via Dolorosa, which retraces Jesus' path to the Cross. We consider traditional artistic depictions of Jesus' crucifixion.
Challenging Crucifixion Depictions (01:56)
An anatomist concludes from the anklebone of a crucified man that each foot was pierced separately. He concludes that hands were nailed together, behind the back. The cross was not as tall as depicted.
Mass Crucifixions (01:10)
In 70 AD, Roman soldiers burnt the Jewish temple and crucified the rebels who rushed to save it. Romans removed nails from victims for reuse, leaving little physical evidence of crucifixion.
Mysterious Coin (01:24)
A steel vault in the Israel Museum contains coins from the ancient world. One coin contains grapes, the Hebrew symbol of freedom, with a silhouette of the Roman emperor.
Bar Kokhba (02:02)
After the Romans' destruction of the Jewish temple, Bar Kokhba built an army in the hills, teaching the fighting technique Abir.
Bar Kokhba's Caves (01:56)
We visit a cave in the Judean foothills that was a base for Bar Kokhba, with storage space and avenues for escape and stones used to lock openings.
Bar Kokhba's Strategy (01:43)
Roman brigades worked as a unit. Bar Kokhba won by attacking from hidden caves, forcing them into individual combat. He created a currency, stamping Jewish symbols on Roman coins.
Rome's Revenge (01:16)
Rome sent in 60,000 soldiers, who retook liberated Jewish towns and burnt them. Fleeing survivors blamed Bar Kokhba.
Seeking Herod's Corpse (01:41)
Israeli archaeologist Ehud Netzer was obsessed with Herodium, the ruins of Herod's palace. Archaeologists knew he was buried at the site, but did not know where.
Netzer's Search for Herod (02:57)
Rejecting archaeological consensus, Netzer thought Herod was buried at the foot of the hill at Herodium and searched 30 years. He studied the geometry behind Herodium's layout.
Finding Herod's Tomb (02:48)
Anti-Roman Jewish insurgents may have destroyed Herod's tomb. Netzer discovered shards of a sarcophagus and the ruined tomb garden. He later died falling down a cliff at Herodium.
Mary's Tomb (02:23)
An incomplete wall painting of Jesus and Mary was discovered near Mary's purported tomb. An arched niche is carved into the tomb wall, in the shape of the arch on a Muslim prayer rug.
Laying Claim to Mary's Tomb (02:38)
Muslims retook Jerusalem from the Crusaders and carved a mihrab into the wall of Mary's Tomb; they revere her as the mother of Jesus, whom they consider a prophet.
Ein Gedi Curse (02:17)
An inscription at the Ein Gedi synagogue cursed anyone who reveals the town's secret. The oasis at Ein Gedi is still there, amidst the desert around the Dead Sea.
Secret Perfume Formula (01:13)
The balsam plant in Ein Gedi was the basis for the extremely expensive perfume balsama, made exclusively there by a secret process.
Recreating Balsama (02:37)
Ein Gedi was burned down; balsama production ended, and the plant disappeared from the region. Today, a kibbutz cultivates balsam seedlings from Africa and hopes to recreate the perfume.
Metal Scroll (01:56)
Archaeologists hoped a tiny, tightly wound metal sheet would prove to be a scroll rivaling the Dead Sea scrolls.
Unfurling Scroll (02:20)
Learn the process by which the Israel Museum unfurled a delicate amulet without damage. They read the earliest Biblical phrases ever found.
"Live Long and Prosper" (01:23)
Leonard Nimoy got the "live long and prosper" sign from priests giving a benediction at a synagogue. Spock's benediction has Biblical echoes.
Credits: Inside the Israel Museum, Jerusalem: Museum Secrets (Series 3) (00:60)
Credits: Inside the Israel Museum, Jerusalem: Museum Secrets (Series 3)
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