Newark New Jersey - Sounds of a Revolution (02:03)
Hear sound bites of black and white Americans who remember the events of the summer of 1967. Archival footage shows the military clashing with civilians and offers viewers a glimpse of typical news reporting of these events.
July 12th, 1967 (02:59)
Black cab driver John Smith finds himself beaten by white police over a traffic infraction. Black leaders intervene and take Smith to the hospital. Despite their efforts, rumors spread throughout the community. A Molotov cocktail is thrown; the riots begin.
White civil rights activists Tom Hayden and Carol Glassman describe the context of their work in Newark in the 1960s. We hear the perspective of black activist George Richardson and National Guardsman and historian Paul Zigo, all of whom were present.
July 12th, 1967 (02:12)
Looting in Newark is focused and based on retribution. Police view the mob in stereotypical way and respond. Some remember the looting giving way to a "party atmosphere."
July 13th, 1967 (02:49)
Mayor Addonezio meets with civil rights leaders and agrees to promote a black policeman and to suspend the officers who beat John Smith. Activists organize a demonstration. Amiri Baraka is pulled from his car and beaten by police.
July 14th, 1967 (01:41)
The streets of Newark are out of control; Mayor Addonezio says, "All is lost." The National Guard is activated. Activists and historians analyze the situation in context with the nation's bigger history.
The Suburbs (01:28)
Learn how federal housing and transportation policies of the 1940s and 50s created "white flight" and set the stage for Newark to become mostly poor and mostly black.
Bank Redlining & Block Busting (01:05)
Learn how this practice created a policy of no mortgages for minorities. Newark is written off by the federal government. Real-estate brokers encourage whites to sell their homes.
Loss of Jobs (00:55)
Throughout the 1950s, many companies move to southern New Jersey. Blacks find no jobs in the industrial sector. This results in poor housing, poor health care, and poor education.
July 14th, 1967 (03:33)
Learn how the arrival of the state police and National Guard in New Jersey create a climate of fear in a city that looks like a war zone. City blocks are surrounded by barbed wire and citizens are stopped on the streets.
July 14th, 1967: Riot Control (02:59)
Faulty communication between local, state, and federal agencies contributes to the chaos on Newark streets. Black citizens are labeled snipers.
July 14th, 1967: Negro Snipers (06:09)
Sniper fear encourages random shooting in the Newark projects. The National Guard treats the streets of Newark as a battle ground; many innocents are shot. Sniper fear encourages a barrage of gunfire.
July 14th, 1967: Newark Police (01:32)
Footage reveals the state police carrying automatic sub-machine guns. Life magazine publishes information about black snipers. Fear of a sniper is a powerful purpose for the politics of law and order without justice.
July 14th, 1967: Racial Discrimination (03:16)
Learn how the immigrant paradigm and the circumstances of blacks creates the prosperity of Newark.
Riot Roots....One Cause is Poor Housing (02:47)
Learn how public housing and poor management contributes to the New Jersey riots of 1967. The federal government plays a role in a racially segregated metropolitan area.
July 15, 1967: The Killing of Billy Furr (03:40)
Life magazine reveals a sequence of photos that shows how looting activities resulted in the shooting of a young boy and the death of Billy Furr. We see a list of names and how the individuals were killed. (Graphic images)
Revolution '67 (01:03)
A study reveals a pervasive feeling of corruption in Newark. Officials consider the idea that a riot was inevitable.
Revolution '67: Two Blows to Newark (02:35)
Learn how the Great Depression and prohibition contributed to the corruption of Newark. The mob has significant influence on the city government and citizen activities.
Revolution '67: Climate of Newark (02:45)
Learn how the Newark population threatens the Newark police force. Police corruption creates a sense of powerlessness in citizens. City government promotes the interests of certain ethnic groups over others. (Graphic images)
City Officials Attack Poverty Program (00:60)
Learn about the corruption of the antipoverty program and its effects on Newark.
In 1966... (04:26)
President Johnson ends the Community Action program and institutes the Model Cities program. Learn about the development of community unions such as NCUP and their grass roots efforts to effect change in the cities.
In 1966...Fighting Race Discrimination (02:51)
Learn how the racial climate of Newark contributes to NCUPs ineffectiveness. Civil rights groups, including the Business Industrial Coordinating Council, attempt to address racial discrimination.
Urban Renewal (03:02)
Wilbur Parker is denied the position of Secretary of the Board of Education. Learn how capital projects and the Addonizio administration further divide the community.
Urban Renewal: Little Changes (02:47)
Black communities protest the proposal for a medical school in Newark. The hope of a better life begins to fade for black Americans and community meetings reveal citizens' frustrations.
July 16, 1967: The Soul Brother Destruction (01:35)
Learn how the state police targeted businesses during the riots of Newark. Many people are killed as "crimes of opportunity." On April 4, 1968, a grand jury investigation of the 22 riot homicides in Newark delivers its unanimous verdict.
July 17, 1967: End Game (03:17)
Learn how peace keeping in Newark comes about via negotiations. Troop withdrawal creates quiet city streets; Paul Zigo recalls his feeling of relief.
The atmosphere of the Newark neighborhood dramatically changes. Activists recall a hostile feeling toward white people. Learn how the Vietnam War contributes to the climate of dissatisfaction in black communities.
Aftermath: Returning to Oblivion (02:16)
The 500 urban rebellions occurring in the 1960s are not studied. The Kerner Commission reports on the causes of and the solutions for the Newark riots. We see archival footage of the Black Power Conference.
Aftermath: Power (03:35)
After the 1967 Newark riots, the black community seeks political power. We learn about the "white exodus" from white neighborhoods in Newark. Springfield Avenue goes into decline.
Newark Today (05:15)
Learn about the effect of government sponsored buildings on the city's revival. The middle class moves away from Newark because of crime and corruption. This drop significantly impacts the economy and city conditions.
Newark is the 20th Most Dangerous US City (03:10)
Heroin trafficking is the largest inner-city problem for Newark. Learn about the effect of the city administration on crime, poverty, and education.
Credits: Revolution ‘67 (00:39)
Credits: Revolution ‘67
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