Introduction: Treatment for Special Populations (01:13)
The hierarchy of assessments to ascertain a patient's pain level includes using patient a self-report rating scale, noting conditions or procedures that cause pain, assessing behaviors, noting reports from others, and documenting physiological measures. This program explores circumstances in which initial steps of the hierarchy are not possible.
Pediatric Patients (09:50)
Evaluating and treating pain can be difficult; untreated pain can cause significant physiological and psychological stress. Assessment scales include NIPS, RIPS, CRIES, FLACC, and CHEOPS. Pharmacological interventions include Acetaminophen, NSAIDS, opioid analgesics, and topical anesthetics. Learn medication administration methods, non-pharmacological techniques, and pain management goals.
Unconscious Patients (01:51)
Assume patients can feel pain. Provide proper analgesics when pain presents and anesthetics during invasive procedures. Assessment scales include the Behavioral Pain Scale and Critical-Care Observation Tool.
Cognitively Impaired Patients (03:01)
Individualize a patient's pain management program to specific needs; assessment can be difficult. Assessment tools include the FACES rating scale, PAINAD Scale, and observable indicators. Treatments include medication and non-pharmacological therapies; monitor for side effects.
Patients Who Deny or Under Report Pain (02:00)
Physical movements, facial expressions, and personality changes can indicate pain; learn reasons for underreporting. Use assessment words to perform a more thorough assessment of beliefs if there are signs of pain.
Patients Who Refuse Pain Relief (01:50)
Patients may fear medications and/or have strong convictions on the use of narcotics or opioids. Provide consistent and confident explanations. Learn key facts to identify when educating patients.
Patients Who Refuse Pain Relief: Elderly (07:42)
Geriatric patients can experience acute, chronic, non-malignant, and malignant pain; pain is often under treated. Learn factors that lead to underreporting by the patient, pain indicators, and pain treatments; avoid Demerol, Stadol, Talwin, and Codeine. Patients require a comprehensive pain assessment.
Credits: Treatment for Special Populations (00:29)
Credits: Treatment for Special Populations
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