Women and the Army (03:18)
During the Middle Ages, camp followers provided support for troops. By 1642, women acted as spies. In the 19th century, Florence Nightingale changed perceptions about nurses; she reduced patient death rates at Crimean War hospitals.
Female Spies (04:34)
During the American Civil War, Dr. Mary Walker became a regimental surgeon and spy. Actress Pauline Cushman became a favorite of Union troops and gathered information; she was captured and court marshaled. After her release, Cushman toured with P.T. Barnum.
Mabel Stobart (04:02)
Stobart began the Women's Convoy Corps, helped found the Women's National Service League, and established a hospital in Belgium. After her capture and release, she established several hospital units around Serbia, commanded a medical convoy, and wrote about her experiences.
Elsie Inglis (02:48)
Inglis formed the Scottish Women's Hospital Committee. Inglis established a hospital in Royaumont Abbey and sent units to several countries. She campaigned to get the Serbian Army removed from Russia.
In 1907, Cavell ran a nurses training school in Brussels. In 1914, she began harboring Allied soldiers and helped them return to their units. The Germans executed her in October 1915; propaganda postcards with her picture incited the public.
White Lady Network (05:56)
The resistance group monitored train activities and worked as couriers. In 1915, Mata Hari began taking money from the German Intelligence and later agreed to work for French Counterintelligence; she was executed in 1917.
Felicia Browne (03:08)
During the Spanish Civil War, Browne went to the front lines to paint and volunteer; leadership discouraged women from volunteering. Browne was shot and killed in August, 1936.
Special Operations Executive (05:01)
The British government organized female spies behind enemy lines. Daphne Park was as a codist. Pearl Witherington started as a courier and became an organizer. Odette Sansom was captured by the Gestapo and sent to a concentration camp.
Recording War Events (03:35)
Doris Zinkeisen painted scenes of the Red Cross at work; she was one of the first to enter Belsen. In 2003, Emily Young created an image for a women at war exhibition at the Imperial War Museum.
Post-War Conflicts (03:28)
War often makes male-dominated careers more accessible to women. A U.S. memorial commemorates the service of women in Korea and Vietnam.
Medecins Sans Frontieres (03:02)
Organizations outside direct government control provide medical services around the world. Jacqui Tong reflects on her time in Africa.
Chronicling Modern Conflicts (04:46)
Freelance Photographer Jenny Matthews documents all aspects of conflicts, including anti-war marches. She reflects on experiences in Afghanistan, photographing women, and females fighting.
Women and War (01:35)
In the 21st century, women are firmly on the front lines of war. Technology expands roles in intelligence gathering. Myths surround stories of some women as spies and nurses.
Credits: Spies and Angels (00:29)
Credits: Spies and Angels
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