Brought to Europe by the Venetians, coffee houses sprung up in major continental cities throughout the17th century, around the same time coffee made its way across the Atlantic to America. In 1615, Venice received Europe's first shipment of green coffee beans and the Dutch were the first Europeans to cultivate coffee trees on the island of Java. In 1720, French Naval officer Gabriel Mathieu de Clieu traveled to Martinique with a coffee tree seedling and by 1777 there were almost 19 million coffee trees growing in Martinique. Coffee houses in the major cities of England, Austria, France, Germany, and Holland worked on new and interesting ways to serve the drink. The popularity of coffee spread through Europe to such an extent that, during the 17th and 18th centuries, there were more than 300 coffee houses in London. Dr. Matthew Green, who has been critically acclaimed for his Coffee House tours, gives Judith an insight into some of the famous coffee houses that once dominated the heart of London.