"Congruence, Appropriate Transparency, and Genuineness" (03:14)
Six students at the University of Warwick compare three types of therapeutic approaches: patient-centered, psychodynamic, and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy. Marianne Allday investigates the title of the paper. Windy Dryden, Roger Casemore, and Michael Jacobs will be interviewed.
Interview With Windy Dryden: Congruence (07:12)
REBT is a psychoeducational approach to counseling. Dryden and Allday discuss differences between this methodology and the person-centered approach. Discuss irrational fears you have conquered with clients.
Windy Dryden: Living Philosophy (06:52)
Dryden discusses why he decided to stop advocating for the client-centered approach at Ashton University. REBT encourages rugged individualism, independence, and humor. Genuineness and congruence are the same.
Windy Dryden: Maintenance (06:28)
The neurotic agreement in psychotherapy may prove challenging. A therapist becomes more aware of feelings when the educational process erodes. Dryden discusses cases that demonstrate REBT's effectiveness.
Windy Dryden: Research Data (04:09)
Clients view REBT as empathic, respectful, and genuine. Nonverbal communication divulges how a client perceives a therapist. Dryden discusses differences between group and individual counseling.
Windy Dryden: Therapeutic Differences (04:37)
All therapy provides a solution. Person-centered therapists are not neutral and indirectly teach a client emotion problem-solving skills. Dryden discusses mentoring students in REBT and negotiating contracts with hospitalized patients.
Windy Dryden: Mentoring Students (03:46)
Dryden discusses allegations against him while earning his master's degree. REBT therapists cannot be horrified by profanity. He or she must be mindful of context when working with institutions.
Interview With Roger Casemore: Person-Centered Approach (03:21)
Congruence is an internal condition where the therapist is aware of personal feelings by interpreting unconscious behaviors and language. Casemore discusses Carl Roger's research and how he applies it in practice.
Roger Casemore: Appropriate Transparency (02:44)
Examine appropriateness and timeliness before revealing information to a client. Genuineness does not mean being completely truthful. A therapist's relationship with the client should dictates whether to divulge emotions.
Roger Casemore: Congruence (02:47)
A therapist cannot be empathic if he or she cannot acknowledge personal feelings. Casemore compares a newborn baby to congruency. Congruence may prove difficult in situations where a therapist has very positive or very negative feelings about a client.
Roger Casemore: Research Data (04:25)
Charles Truax and Robert Carkhuff's research demonstrates what clients want to experience with their therapist. The three equal conditions include congruence, appropriate transparency, and empathy. Less transference will occur if the therapist behaves authentically.
Roger Casemore: Practical Applications (03:41)
Casemore compares individual, support group, and group therapy conditions. Clients want to experience core conditions of a person-centered approach at different times. Big group work should not be attempted by those who are untrained in the field.
Roger Casemore: Supervision (03:45)
Supervisors need to know issues occurring in the therapist's life. The person-centered approach requires individuals to be congruent, genuine, and transparent. The fundamental statement of ethical principles dictates that a counseling relationship is fiduciary.
Roger Casemore: Training and Development (04:16)
Therapists who practice other modalities incorporate core conditions in sessions. The person-centered approach is exhausting and must be practiced daily.
Roger Casemore: Summary (06:26)
Congruence, appropriate transparency, and genuineness are essential in the person-centered approach. Casemore believes in self-actualization. Further research is necessary in pre-therapy.
An Interview With Michael Jacobs: Congruence (04:39)
Psychodynamic therapists use the term countertransference instead of congruence. The therapist experiences emotions just as much as the client. Appropriate transference is considered a psychodynamic perspective.
Michael Jacobs: Appropriate Transparency (03:10)
Congruence is not always revealed. Jacobs explains how he incorporates self-disclosure. Genuineness is when the therapist feels like a real person to the client.
Michael Jacobs: Genuineness (05:22)
Ralph Greenson describes the real relationship in the psychodynamic tradition. The person-centered approach incorporates different terminology but has similar meanings. The most important part of the psychodynamic theory is the transference relationship.
Michael Jacobs: Transference Issues (04:36)
Congruence, appropriate transparency, and genuineness are part of countertransference. Jacobs discusses differences between group work and individual therapy.
Michael Jacobs: Supervision (04:43)
Supervisors will share more information with someone they are mentoring than with a client. When working with clients, a therapist cannot always be speculative. Jacobs and Allday discuss ethical breaches when the counselor is being too transparent.
Michael Jacobs: Labeling (05:26)
Do not worry about technical terms; understand various methods. There is little difference between interactions in a counseling session and interactions with others outside of therapy. The psychodynamic approach recognizes the importance of the relationship between therapist and client.
An Interview with Michael Jacobs: Future Developments (03:03)
Various modalities compete to be the best form of therapy. Jacobs quotes Donald Winnicott's research on how to combat very positive or negative feelings toward a client.
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