Free to Be (05:45)
In 1990, Michelle Douglas, a military police officer who was fired for being a lesbian, sued the Canadian government and won. In 1992, Michael Leshner and Mike Stark's lawsuit granted equal rights in pension plans. With the Federal Civil Marriage Act in 2005, Canada became the fourth country to legalize gay marriage.
Healing Words (06:09)
The last First Nation residential school closed in 1996. The church-run system was implemented in the 1880s by Prime Minister John A. Macdonald to force First Nation children to assimilate. Thousands of former students sued over the abuse they suffered, which led to the largest class action settlement in Canadian history.
On the Edge (09:58)
Efforts for Quebec to secede from Canada failed in 1980 and 1992, but another campaign went forward in 1995. Secession was leading in the polls a few days before the vote, so the opposition held a unity rally in Montreal. The referendum failed by a close margin.
Cod, Oil, and Apps (06:42)
Newfoundland's identity and economy depended on cod were disrupted by a ban on commercial fishing in 1992. Thousands of former fishermen moved to Alberta to work in oil fields but returned when Newfoundland became an oil producer. The former manufacturing communities of Kitchener and Waterloo became technology centers thanks to Blackberry.
Shattered Vision (07:14)
Canada was part of every United Nations peace keeping mission until disastrous campaigns in Yugoslavia and Rwanda. As peace keepers they could defend themselves against attacks but not stop attacks on others, which led to thousands of civilian deaths in both countries. By the late 1990s, Canada's participation in peacekeeping dropped dramatically.
Light Out of Darkness (06:43)
After United States airspace was closed on September 11, 2001, 38 international flights were directed to Gander Airport in central Newfoundland. The small town of Gander, with a population of about 10,000, provided comfort, housing, and food to the 6,500 stranded passengers and crew members.
Credits: Canada: A People's History - 1991 - 2002 (00:31)
Credits: Canada: A People's History - 1991 - 2002
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