Twins Research Australia (03:14)
For 35 years, the project has been studying 75,000 pairs of twins to learn more about human development. A focus of the study is learning and understanding how complex skills develop.
Pitch Accuracy Test (06:04)
Identical twins Lee and Paula Bowman participate in the study with researchers from the University of Melbourne. Prof. Sarah Wilson tests the pitch of identical and fraternal twins to see if musical ability is inherited or learned; accuracy is higher among identical twins.
Educational Performance Test (06:53)
Twins Research uses standardized test results of 2,700 pairs of twins to measure how teachers, schools, and genetics affect performance. Identical twins Nina and Imogen go to the same school but have different teachers. Researchers determine that genetics is the greatest factor in test results.
Twin Genetics and Environment (03:16)
Identical twins share the same genes and environment, while fraternal twins only share the same environment. Nick Martin believes all traits are genetic on some level.
Temperament Study (10:02)
Neurologists at the Murdoch Children's Research Hospital study personality traits among twins. Temperament development is understood to be genetically based. Differences in identical twins are thought to come from non-shared environmental factors.
Fetal Development (04:54)
Twins like Dane and Cole help researcher better understand prenatal development. Dane has cerebral palsy, which is more common in twins.
Heritable Diseases Study (05:35)
Identical twins Prue and Danielle have different genes; Danielle has Dravet syndrome. They are part of a study to better understand how epilepsy and other genetic diseases develop. Researchers pinpoint when Danielle's genes mutated to develop the disease.
Gender Identity and Twins (04:24)
Taz and Raja are identical twins, but Taz is transgender. Taz began questioning his gender identity as a child; Raja never did. The science behind gender identity and expression is still unknown.
Aging and Twins (09:07)
Twins tend to live longer than non-twins, which some scientists credit to the lack of loneliness. Eric and Barry are part of a study of 600 pairs of older twins. Researchers examine how genetics contribute to the development of cognitive disorders.
Credits: Twins (00:24)
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