Introduction: Castles - Britain's Fortified History: Kingdom of Conquest (01:57)
In the 13th Century, Edward I used castles to create an empire. While he triumphed in Wales, he failed in Scotland.
White Castle (04:53)
Edward Plantagenet was inspired to expand his kingdom and power. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's strength panicked the Marcher Lords and the monarchy. Builders redesigned the castle as a military stronghold with round towers.
Dolbadarn Castle (03:16)
Llywelyn the Great built the fortress at an important pass. Inherited lands were divided up between sons instead of naming an heir. Ap Gruffudd refused to acknowledge Edward five times in a row; a feud erupted and the king claimed Wales as part of his empire.
Caernarfon Castle (07:40)
James of St. George oversaw the construction process and incorporated Welsh and Roman mythology. Edward I ordered a corpse thought to be Magnus Maximus be buried at Caernarfon Castle. The king created the title "Prince of Wales" for his first born son.
Building a Castle (05:58)
Masons were recruited from Great Britain and paid well. Builders formed ashlar stones using the plug and feather technique. A Masons' square was used to create a building block.
Beaumaris Castle (05:46)
Bastides existed within the walls, generating income for a castle's construction; new settlers flocked from England. James of St. George constructed the castle with concentric walls, but it was never finished due to expenses.
Caerlaverock Castle (05:17)
Edward I invaded Scotland to add another revenue source, but was met with resistance. Enemy soldiers and catapults
Stirling Castle (03:00)
The castle was the natural gateway between the highlands and the lowlands. Edward I's army was held off by 30 soldiers. The "Warwolf" was the largest trebuchet ever built.
Operating a Trebuchet (04:40)
Trebuchets could shoot boulders of varying weight, beehives, and prisoners of war. After the defenders saw "Warwolf," the garrison at Stirling attempted to surrender.
Kildrummy Castle (04:31)
Robert the Bruce crowned himself King of Scotland. Osbourne, the Kildrummy blacksmith, betrayed the defenders and set fire to the grain stores. Castles were destroyed to render them useless.
Future of Castles (02:29)
Castles became icons of nostalgia. Literature fantasized ideals of chivalry and romance within its walls.
Credits: Castles - Britain's Fortified History: Kingdom of Conquest (00:30)
Credits: Castles - Britain's Fortified History: Kingdom of Conquest
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