Gough Map (02:39)
The map was created 600 years ago, and is the oldest surviving map to reasonably depict Britain accurately. Historian Alixe Bovey used the map to explore the medieval roots of England.
York was medieval England’s second largest town; Shambles was the butchers’ district. Pilgrims visited one of the largest Gothic cathedrals in Europe, York Minster.
Fountains Abbey (05:13)
William the Conqueror retaliated after facing fierce resistance in the north of Britain. Fountains Abbey was founded by a breakaway group of 13 monks who fled from a neighboring abbey during a riot. The monastery became known for high-quality wool.
Durham Cathedral (04:44)
The cathedral was built between 1093 and 1133 to house the remains of St. Cuthbert of Durham. It was Britain’s top pilgrim destination for most of the 12th century. An ill-fated tightrope stunt dashed Prior Thomas de Melsonby’s hopes of becoming a bishop in 1237.
Dunstanburgh Castle (05:43)
Thomas of Lancaster began construction of Dunstanburgh in 1313. He fell out of favor with his cousin, King Edward II, after murdering one of his friends.
Norham Castle and Berwick (03:04)
Norham Castle changed hands between the English and the Scots on eight occasions and was besieged 13 times. Berwick-upon-Tweed was the biggest town in Scotland during the Middle Ages, making it a prime target for the English.
Credits: In Search of Medieval Britain: North of England (00:32)
Credits: In Search of Medieval Britain: North of England
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