Introduction: Naval Aviation 1945-95 (01:36)
Eight American carriers and the French Clemenceau deployed during the Gulf War. World War II veteran battleships supported Coalition efforts.
World War II (02:53)
Aircraft carriers replaced battleships as the premier navy vessel during the second world conflict; the United States possessed 120 by its end. Land-based planes and maritime patrol craft defeated German U boats during the Battle of the Atlantic. Jet carriers developed after 1945.
Korean War: Conflict (02:47)
In June 1950, the United States and British navies were held up in the Port of Pusan, but able to provide ground force support of northern raids. In September, General Douglas MacArthur successfully drove the Koreans north, after coordinating an amphibious landing in Inchon.
Korean War: Advancements (03:32)
The carrier’s vital role in war was confirmed during the conflict; cost-effectiveness and jet technologies challenged their function. The British invented the steam catapult, drawing steam from ship engines; they innovated the angled flight deck, enabling simultaneous takeoffs and landings.
Cold War Developments (02:48)
In the early 1950s, the flying boat and float plane were made obsolete by long-range land-based planes and rotary wing craft. Helicopter Assault ships were produced by the United States and England. In 1958, American carriers supported Marine landings in Lebanon.
Vietnam War (09:02)
In August 1964, United States naval jets struck Vietnamese installations after warships were targeted in the Gulf of Tonkin. Pilots and flight deck crews worked long hours during the conflict. In July 1967, a missile was accidentally launched on the USS Forrestal, causing severe fire damage.
Naval Aviation Expansion (02:17)
By the 1970s, global power navies all operated aircraft carriers. In 1956, Admiral Sergey Gorschkov developed the Kiev-Class and the Yak 36 Jump Jet. Britain gave up its large fleet carriers, using the Sea Harrier on smaller types.
South Atlantic: Invasion (09:55)
In April 1982, Argentina seized the Falkland Islands and South Georgia; a British Naval task force deployed to reclaim them. English helicopters used sonar buoys to detect Argentinian submarines. HMS Sheffield satellite communications interfered with its radar; in May, Super Etendard aircraft sunk it with Exocet missiles.
South Atlantic: Task Force Landings (04:28)
On May 21st, 1982, the British task force arrived at San Carlos Bay; Argentinians struck them with iron bombs. On May 25th, the Atlantic Conveyor merchant vessel was hit by an Exocet missile. Sea Harriers reinforced the mission; English troops advanced on Port Stanley, regaining the Falkland Islands on June 14th.
Mediterranean Sea (03:21)
In 1983, the United States landed a task force on the Lebanon coast to support international peace efforts. American carrier aircraft confronted Libyan jets; F-14 Tomcats shot down their fighters in 1981 and 1989. The ships touted escorts and advanced radar systems for defense.
Operation Desert Storm (07:13)
During the first Iraq War, naval aviation formed a blockade in the Persian Gulf, preventing merchant vessels from reaching the country, and protecting Coalition supply lines. Tomahawk cruise missiles and carrier aircraft struck Kuwaiti targets, and the Iraqi navy was demolished.
Credits: Naval Aviation 1945-95 (00:43)
Credits: Naval Aviation 1945-95
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