Civil Aviation: Popularity and Advancements (05:36)
Many started traveling by plane during the 1950s, stressing aviation infrastructure; Boeing developed the 747 Jumbo Jet to reduce airliner traffic. Jack Northrop conceived blended wing body technology in the 1940s; NASA, Boeing, and Aerospatiale applied it to commercial craft. The Concorde began supersonic flights in the seventies.
Civil Aviation: Safety Concerns (05:23)
Skyways prevent airliner collisions; the Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System instruct pilots how to deter accidents. The Satellite Global Positioning System allows pilots to choose safe routes; navigational hybrids reduce cockpit controls and simplify flying. The British Defense Evaluation and Research Agency designs bomb damage resistant craft interiors.
Helicopters and Airships (04:14)
The NOTAR system used compressed air to counter act main rotor torque of rotary winged aircraft; the Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey implemented a tilt rotor to achieve faster speeds. Zeppelin Works Friedrichshafen reopened in Germany in 1996.
Alternative Propulsion (07:20)
Kanellos Kanellopoulos set the human flight distance record at 73 miles in April 1988; NASA’s Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology Program developed the Pathfinder, a remotely navigated solar powered vehicle. Balloons are the oldest flight form; many nonstop global circumnavigation attempts have been made.
Military Aviation: Versatility Progress (05:18)
Transport aircraft such as the Lockheed C-5 Galaxy and McDonnell Douglas C-17 Globemaster transported troops and heavy weaponry during the Gulf War. The Lockheed F-22 Advanced Tactical Fighter reached Mach Two, and incorporated stealth technology. The Panavia Tornado incorporated variable wing geometry to fill multiple roles.
Military Aviation: Remote Control (07:01)
Surface to surface missiles emerged in the 1950s; cruise missiles were used in the Gulf War. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles developed to replace high altitude spy planes. Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicle prototypes sustain G forces that humans cannot; NASA’s Hyper X attained Mach ten, utilizing supersonic combustion ramjets engines.
Space Aeronautics: Military Applications (02:31)
President Ronald Reagan introduced the Strategic Defense Initiative, capable of destroying ballistic missiles before reaching targets. Boeing and NASA developed airborne laser technology to blast missiles at launch. The United States Air Force created the Space Maneuvering Vehicle to defend satellites during wartime.
Space Aeronautics: Exploration and Colonization (10:48)
The first reusable launch vehicle was the McDonnell Douglas DC-X Delta Clipper; the Lockheed Martin Skunk Works X-33 VentureStar incorporated the lifting body design. The Pathfinder landed on Mars in 1997; in January 1988, Lunar Prospector launched. Prolonged space occupation posed challenges to astronauts; solutions continually developed.
Credits: The Future Of Flight (00:41)
Credits: The Future Of Flight
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