Introduction to Unexplained Mysteries (01:20)
This program explores many mysteries of the universe that continue to baffle scientists. The topics discussed are: our Sun's evil twin, time travel, antimatter, the disappearance of water on Mars and what came before the Big Bang.
Periodic Hard Rain (02:46)
Gigantic explosions, heat and global fires from comets hitting earth caused mass extinctions. Great extinctions seem to occur every 26 million years. Nemesis, a red dwarf star is said to be the culprit.
Nemesis Theory (02:35)
An undiscovered companion star to the sun, every 26 million years, Nemesis's orbit encounters the Oort Cloud. Its gravity causes comets to break away towards the inner solar system, many hitting earth. The existence of Nemesis is controversial.
Looking for Nemesis (02:37)
In 1997, a NASA begins using the telescope 2mass to hunt for previously unknown stars. After producing over 2 million images, no Nemesis is seen. Nemesis might be a brown dwarf, not visible to 2mass.
Time Travel (02:37)
Time travel and potentially altering our destiny is a compelling mystery. Ronald Mallet investigates time travel. His study is based on Einstein's space-time theory and the warping of space. Time is thought of as a loop allowing for back and forth movement.
Fueled by Einstein's Theories (02:00)
Robert Mallet studies Black Holes to cover his investigation of time. Black Holes distort space and time. Experimental evidence is based on Einstein's famous equation explaining that light should be able to warp space like a massive object.
Model of Light Twisting Time and Space (02:22)
Robert Mallet creates a model of a circulating laser beam that creates a tunnel of light twisting space and time. Mallet hopes to create a loop of space and time along which we can travel. Neutrons will be the first time travellers.
Limits to Time Travel (01:41)
Travelling in time is limited to when the device is turned on for it is the device that creates the effect. Going further back takes technology not developed here. Dr. Mallet theorizes using alien technology to overcome the limits of time travel.
Overcoming Paradoxes of Time (02:47)
Paradoxes exist in time travel, such as the Grandfather Paradox, which are loops of possible and impossible events. Parallel universe theory allows travelling between alternate universes affecting events without changing our own.
What Happened to Antimatter? (02:57)
Antimatter was created along with matter. Every particle of matter has an opposite particle having the same mass with opposite charge. When these particles come into contact they annihilate each other. Energy as photons is left behind.
Explosive Combination (02:50)
Scientists look at harnessing the tremendous amount of energy in matter-antimatter collisions. Scientists struggle to explain the disappearance of antimatter. One guess is a larger amount of matter, leaving enough to create the objects in the universe.
Using Antimatter (02:42)
Scientists wonder if antimatter exists in distant galaxies. Laboratory accelerators create antimatter for medical purposes. PET scans inject positrons into the human brain, producing gamma rays which are detected. Antimatter remains unexplained.
Mystery on Mars (02:04)
Scientists study the disappearance of water on Mars. Geologic evidence gathered by Mars Rovers and Orbiters suggest that the climate on Mars changed dramatically in the past. The evidence tells when the water disappeared, but not why.
Theories of Mars' Atmosphere (02:46)
A series of events left Mars with a solidified core, possibly causing it to lose its magnetic field and protective ozone layer, leaving it vulnerable to solar winds. Another theory is of a large asteroid impact event changing the surface of Mars.
Polar Ice Caps (03:15)
There is evidence that below the Ice Caps is liquid water. Dr. Peter Smith is lead investigator of NASA's Phoenix Mars Mission. The robotic probes one objective is finding water. Scientists hope to find a water ecosystem below the surface.
Before the Big Bang (02:31)
The greatest mystery of all science is what set creation in motion. Because time and space were both created at the moment of the Big Bang, scientists are unable to go beyond its singularity. What happened before intrigues astrophysicists.
Cyclic Universe Theory (02:36)
A cyclic universe lasting for a trillion years, could set the stage for another Big Bang. Standing waves in the universe could hold clues. Laser technology is now probing these waves.
Conclusion and Credits: Unexplained Mysteries (01:27)
While science has made sense of many things, there is still much to be discovered. Even though the universe is constantly changing, the laws of physics do not, which gives us hope of ultimately explaining how we got here.
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