Introduction: From Caves to Cosmos (02:05)
Over 500 years ago, 100 million people connected by infrastructure and social networks populated the Americas. Native Americans created a democracy that inspired the U.S. Constitution. They dominated landscapes and domesticated plants.
Chaco, a Sacred City (03:26)
Leigh Kuwanwisiwma leads natives to a cave shrine; see a Pueblo ceremony honoring ancestors. Ronald Wadsworth discusses the site's history. Hopi believe the city was a metropolis of science and spirituality. (Credits)
Cultural Connections (03:35)
Archaeologist Patricia Crown describes room 28 excavation; she finds chocolate in cylindrical pots. Cacao grows only in Central America and similar containers suggest the tradition of drinking chocolate migrated to Chaco. Experts find various objects with ritual significance from distant locations.
Ancient Brazilians (04:40)
Archaeologists Anna Roosevelt and Chris Davis investigate Caverna da Pedra Pintada paintings; they find evidence that refutes previous migratory population theories. Davis interprets a petroglyph to be a calendar. Tools and depictions reveal foraging, fishing, and scientific endeavors.
Ceremonial Kivas (04:25)
Chaco, built between 900 and 1150AD, occupies several miles of New Mexico and includes 12 houses; kivas are located throughout. Kuwanwisiwma describes ritual uses. See a 1,000-year-old smoking ceremony.
Origin and Quest (09:28)
Hear the Native American creation story; many Puebloans believe the Grand Canyon is the site of emergence. Jim Enote tracks petroglyphs carved by his ancestors at Glen Canyon. Hear a native tale encouraging stewardship and finding the "Center Place."
Finding Balance in the Universe (06:11)
In 2003, rains create a sinkhole at a Teotihuacan pyramid, revealing a manmade cave. Sergio Gomez Chavez explores underground tunnels and explains artifacts. The cavern is designed to represent the heavens and underworld.
Aligning Time and Place (04:20)
At Chaco, the sacred power of six directions is applied to time; Ronald Wadsworth discusses the importance of alignment to agriculture and ceremony. Pueblo Bonito connects the city to the sky with directionally corresponding walls that track daily and seasonal solar events.
Settling the Americas (03:44)
Skywatching, six directions, and the search for a Center Place are fundamental to Native American belief systems. Chumash tribesmen paddle a traditional canoe; Reginald Pagaling explains water's role as a teacher. He and his ancestors use stars for navigation.
Linked Through Time and Space (05:23)
New DNA evidence reveals all Native Americans descend from one people; they lived in Beringia for 25,000 years. Roosevelt and Davis reexamine Brazil's petroglyphs. The cliff wall is covered with depictions of grids, animals, and circles; ancient natives transformed the mountain into a calendar.
Fulfilled Covenant (05:36)
Wadsworth describes Chaco as the Center Place for the Pueblo. Hopi elders conduct an ancient smoking ceremony. Native Americans discuss connections to nature and ancestors.
Credits: From Caves to Cosmos (00:32)
Summary and Credits: From Caves to Cosmos
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