Development of Fluoroscopy (06:28)
Fluoroscopes provide real-time x-ray feed and are useful for both diagnosis and therapy. Image analysis software and data storage capabilities can be utilized. Wilhelm Roentgen discovered x-rays in 1895.
X-Radiation and Imaging Process (04:18)
X-ray wavelengths are shorter than UV rays and longer than gamma rays. X-radiation occurs when high-velocity electrons collide with an anode; recirculating oil or water acts as a cooling system. Traditional fluoroscopes use screens coated with materials such as calcium tungstate.
Flat Panel Detectors (03:10)
FPDs are lighter, more durable, and have less distortion than traditional image intensifiers. Indirect detectors contain a layer of gadolinium oxysulfide or cesium iodide before the pixel array. Direct FPDs use photoconductors to convert x-ray photons into an electrical charge; it is especially useful in mammograms.
Operations: Safety Protocols (05:22)
Fluoroscopically guided procedures help reduce patient morbidity and mortality. Orthopedic surgeons use it when performing joint replacements, vertebroplasty, and implant placements. Keep overall fluoroscopy time as short as possible to reduce radiation exposure.
Operations: System Configuration (03:09)
Conventional systems consist of a bed that can rotate 90 degrees so the patient can remain upright. Spot films are becoming obsolete. Remote control systems can be fully controlled from an operators console protecting the staff from radiation exposure.
Operations: X-Ray Source and Beam Filtration (02:41)
Extra heat capacity is needed for special rooms like cardiovascular imaging. Focal spot size can be as small as 0.3 millimeters; radiation output can be continuous or pulsed. Beam hardening filters can be equipped between the x=ray tube and the collimator.
Operations: Collimation (01:46)
Collimation can be circular or rectangular in shape. The manufacturer rates patient tables for a particular weight limit. Anti-scatter grids are removable by the operator.
Black and white are reversed. Modern systems include high definition LCD screens. Radio-opaque contrast agents are often administered during fluoroscopy.
Interpretation: Projectional Radiography v. Fluoroscopy (01:52)
Radio-opaque tissues appear lighter. Density, atomic number, and its opacity determine an objects darkness; all visible shadows should be examined. Minimally invasive procedures like fluoroscopy have replaced surgical operations.
Credits: Medical Imaging: Technical Aspects, Operations, and Interpretation - Fluoroscopy (01:16)
Credits: Medical Imaging: Technical Aspects, Operations, and Interpretation - Fluoroscopy
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