Civilizations Meeting (07:28)
Art became the great interface when distant cultures met for the first time. Benin bronzes were looted from Africa during the 19th Century. Tribal kings called Obas ruled the land; the arrival of Portuguese traders created an economic boom that enriched both societies. (Credits)
"The King's Fountain" (02:45)
The artist depicted Lisbon during the trading boom. One out of ten of its residents were African in the Sixteenth Century; white and black slaves existed. Belem Tower protected the harbor.
Central Mexico (03:05)
Central America was dominated by the Aztec Empire. Moctezuma may have given Hernan Cortes a sculpture of Quetzalcoatl.
The Aztec Empire Conquered (02:54)
Missionaries arrived to eradicate the indigenous people's religion and customs; conquistadors destroyed temples and erected churches from the rubble. Bernadino de Sahagun wrote "The Florentine Cotex" to describe the daily life of the Aztec. Day of the Dead merged into All Saint's Day.
Spain Transformed (03:06)
Artwork from Mexico and Spain contained blood images during the Baroque period. El Greco settled in Toledo and painted "The Disrobing of Christ." The Spanish Inquisition burned heretics alive.
Kyushu, Japan (03:29)
European merchants discovered a large feudal society that could not be conquered. Portugal became Japan's trading partners. Artists began creating Namban Screens depicting exotic goods and animals.
Shogunate Regime (04:28)
The leaders knew of the destruction of the Aztec and Incan Empires and determined to not allow Japan to suffer the same fate. All foreigners were rejected except Dutch Traders living on Deshima Island. Temples taught the samurai calligraphy, the tea ceremony, religious education, and Zen Buddhism.
Dutch Glasses (02:34)
Convex lenses gave flat images three dimensions. Maruyama Okyo drew "Archery Contest at the Sanjusangendo" and "Cracked Ice."
Amsterdam, Holland (02:16)
During the Dutch Golden Age, Amsterdam became the center of global trade and capitalism. Businessman acquired Chinese lacquered paintings, Persian silk clothes, Chinese pottery, and American silver and gold.
Dutch Art (02:52)
Artists included Meindert Hobbema, Jan Steen, Willem Claeszoon Heda, Frans Hals, and Rembrandt Van Rijn. Johannes Vermeer painted intimate everyday scenes within the Dutch home.
Dutch Exploration (03:21)
Maria Sibylla Merian studied entomology and published "The Caterpillars Marvelous Transformation and Strange Floral Food." The system of guilds prohibited women from painting in oils.
Calcutta, India (03:27)
Bostoners dumped The British East India Company's tea into the harbor at the beginning of the American Revolution. Johann Zoffany remained in Lucknow because of the court culture. “Colonel Mordaunt’s Cock Match” depicted the Nawib's cock fighting.
Other Artists (03:02)
William Fraser was sent to India to pacify the warring tribes on its border and adopted the county's ways. "Company Paintings" depicted characters from every caste of society. Ghulam Ali Khan signed his own work.
Descendant of Fraser (02:41)
Olivia Fraser immersed herself in Indian artistic culture to complete the mission Fraser originally set 150 years prior. In "Wheel of Time" the artist incorporated the blue colors of Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva.
Colonized India (05:24)
The East India Company controlled the majority of India by the middle of the eighteenth century. Richard Wellesley argued to create "Government House" in the neo-Classical style Calcutta. El Anatsui sews bottle tops into sculptures.
Credits: Encounters: Episode 4 (00:32)
Credits: Encounters: Episode 4
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