Mass Killing (07:48)
Volcanoes are some of Earth's most dangerous natural phenomena. Archeologists in London uncover a mass burial pit from around 1250. Don Walker determines the people died from famine caused by extreme weather.
Effects of Volcanic Ash (03:50)
To determine the cause of "the year without a summer," scientists study the eruption of Mount Pinatubo. Pinatubo erupted volcanic gases into the atmosphere which reflected sunlight back into space, cooling the Earth by two degrees.
Polar Ice Caps (09:43)
Researchers working on the Greenland Ice Sheet Project can pinpoint past climate patterns by studying ice layers. The Pacific Ring of Fire might lead experts to the location of the volcano which erupted and resulted in mass deaths in 1257.
Indonesian Volcanoes (08:33)
Indonesia is the most volcanically active region on the Pacific Ring of Fire. On Lombok, a team of experts examines a caldera; pumice quarries surround the Mount Rinjari volcanic system.
Mount Rinjari (05:59)
Researches examine pumice quarries on Lombok and discover volcanic deposits 120 feet deep. The team will try to determine if the pumice is from the 1257 eruption. Franck Lavigne reads about the eruption of Mount Rinjari and collapse of Mount Samalas in the Babad Lombok.
Volcanic Landscape (04:45)
The team mounts an expedition to determine if the caldera was once Mount Samalas. They assess the geology to determine the sequence of events that created the landscape.
Assessing Volcanic Eruptions (04:51)
To determine if Mount Samalas is the mystery volcano of 1257, the team gathers forensic evidence from 100 sites to compare with deposits from the polar ice cores. Celine Vidal uses radiocarbon dating to determine the timeframe of the Mount Samalas eruption; she compares the chemical fingerprint to chemicals within the ice.
Future Volcanic Eruptions (05:37)
Following the eruption of Mount Samalas, volcanic clouds spread through the atmosphere and cooled the planet. Eruptions from Mount Barujari indicate the volcanic system is still active; the rainwater lake gives scientists clues of magmatic activity beneath the caldera.
Credits: Killer Volcanoes (00:37)
Credits: Killer Volcanoes
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