Schizophrenias: Introduction (01:16)
Paranoid schizophrenic Leslie describes his experience hearing voices.
Schizophrenias: What They Are (09:27)
Hear epidemiology statistics. Onset can be chronic or acute. Symptoms are reality distortion, including paranoid delusions and hallucinations; social withdrawal; and thought and speech disorganization. View artwork by a paranoid schizophrenic patient.
Jeff: A Case History (07:18)
Dr. Timothy Kuehnel discusses his patient's chronic paranoid schizophrenia diagnosis. He is preparing to return to the community, where he will live in a sheltered setting. Memory loss and auditory hallucinations are common; patients also have healthy moments.
Schizophrenias: What They Aren't (02:51)
Dr. Dennis Shulman discusses misconceptions about the disease, including that it causes violent behavior, features multiple personalities, and causes homelessness. Split personality refers to fragmented thoughts, feelings and behaviors.
Schizophrenia Causal Factors (04:52)
Dr. Nancy Andreasen discusses genetic predisposition, birth injuries, early infections, and psychological stress. Brain imaging reveals enlarged ventricles, a structural abnormality, and prefrontal cortex functional abnormalities. Excessive dopamine activity may also be a factor.
Genetic and Environmental Factors (04:22)
Dr. Edward Katkin discusses monozygotic and dizygotic twin studies showing genes play a role in developing schizophrenia. Combat stress or the transition to adulthood can also trigger symptoms in predisposed individuals.
Schizophrenogenic Family Hypothesis (06:39)
Learn about the controversial view that parents could trigger schizophrenia in their children. Evidence shows that individuals developing symptoms can disrupt the family dynamic. Jeff's parents recall how his psychotic behavior affected them. David recalls how family support helped him fight schizophrenia.
Schizophrenia Treatment (07:45)
Drug treatment has replaced ECT and reduces hospitalization duration and relapse rates. SPECT scans reveal prefrontal cortex function before and after phenothiazine. Anti-psychotic drugs reduce symptoms in most patients, but have side effects. Psychosocial interventions include family, group, and milieu therapy.
Training to Live Independently (03:52)
The Los Angeles Veterans Administration Medical Center teaches how to manage medication and its side effects, talk to doctors, make social conversation, and engage in daily activities requiring prefrontal cortex functions.
Psychotherapy for Schizophrenia (03:05)
Learn about counseling goals. Progress is most often made through the therapist-patient relationship. Dr. Ann-Louis Silver discusses building trust and being a long term source of support for patients.
Schizophrenia Summary (04:27)
Shulman recommends improving research on combining theory and treatments. Psychotherapy, behavioral therapy, social therapy and medication can help patients to live more normal lives in the community. Patients share their hopes for the future.
Credits: Schizophrenias (01:23)
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