Legacy of Dictatorships: Introduction (01:20)
Between 1974 and 1975, three Western European dictatorships fall; Portugal, Spain, and Greece face many challenges. (Credits)
Mass Graves in Spain (05:34)
In September 1976, Falangists kill several women in Extremadura. In Malaga, Francoists execute 4,000; families watch the exhumation of graves. Francisco Franco's uprising claims the lives of 400,000 people and forces Republicans into exile; Hitler and Mussolini support the Francoists.
"The Transition" (02:35)
Spanish Francoism ends with a slow progression toward democracy; an exhibit reminds visitors of the Franco regime's cruelty. Spain accepts the authority of King Juan Carlos and former Franco party members participate in a democratically elected Parliament; the Parliament votes for amnesty perpetrated since the civil war.
Progress Since Franco's Death (03:49)
Santiago Carrillo discusses the end of fascism in Spain and the move toward democracy. He is not sorry the guilty never faced judgement.
Historical Memory Law (05:54)
In December 2007, Jose-Luis Zapatero proposes the law. Jose Maria Aznar believes it jeopardizes Spain's work during the political transition. Leire Pajin believes people who push the idea of division refuse to recognize freedom fighters.
Confronting Spain's Past (08:04)
Many criticize the shortcomings of the Historical Memory Law. Montse Armengou argues healing will only be possible when victims are vindicated. Emilio Silva searches for mass-burial sites; he and Nicolas Sanchez Albornoz discuss the Transition and the Valle de los Caidos.
Valle de los Caidos (04:08)
Every year, Franco's daughter and other apologists celebrate his birthday; his remains reside next to those of Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera. The Martyrs Cemetery holds the remains of 5,000 Francoists killed during the Siege of Madrid; a priest discusses the Transition.
Carabanchel Prison (03:32)
Beatifications widen the gap between defenders and detractors of the Historical Memory Law. The destruction of the prison is a hot issue for Leftists; Victor Diaz Cardiel leads a protest. Protestors gather bricks from the site.
Keeping History Alive (03:51)
In Valladolid, Marcos Ana shares his convictions with students; revenge is not a political ideal or justice. He discusses writing poetry while in prison.
António de Oliveira Salazar (03:51)
Reconciliation triumphs over the desire to examine the political past in Portugal; the Peniche Fortress embodies political repression. In the 1930s, Salazar establishes the Estado Novo and supports Franco against the Republicans. Irene Pimentel discusses Salazar's regime.
"Don't Erase Memory" (02:47)
Portugal has no memorial of the dictatorship that lasted 48 years, contributing to the ignorance of young people. In 2007, Jaime Nogueira Pinto created a show about Salazar for "Portugal's Man of All Time"; the dictator's victory indicates confusion about Portugal's past.
"April 25th Bridge" (04:36)
In 1966, the bridge over the Tagus River becomes a symbol of modern Portugal. In 1974, the last of the Salazarist government falls; Captain Salgueiro Maia leads the insurrection. Ruben de Carvalho discusses the regime and reconciliation.
Carnation Revolution (07:09)
The "April 25th Association" safeguards the memory of that day in 1974 when soldiers toppled the vestiges of Salazar's regime. Members discuss the transition to democracy and M.F.A. political goals. On May 1, 1974, Alvaro Cunhal and Mario Soares return from exile;
"Kangaroo Court" (05:05)
Members of the "April 25th Association" consider Portugal's collective memory. During Salazar's regime, the penal court in Lisbon sends dissidents to various camps and prisons. Jorge Sampaio discusses the two years following the revolution and reconciliation.
Island Deportations (03:07)
In Greece, democracy brings no forgiveness of the previous dictatorship. Maria Piniou Kalli recalls being sent to Gyaros and nearly dying. Civil war ravages Greece after German occupation in 1945 and claims 150,000 lives.
Regime of the Colonels (03:04)
In April 1967, a group of anti-Communist colonels topples the Greek monarchy and rules the country by force. Kalli discusses judgments that followed the end of the dictatorship. The Colonels still living remain behind bars.
Changing Governments (04:17)
The Colonels face accusations of high treason. The Junta storms Cyprus, but the conquest fails and results in the fall of the dictatorship. Constantin Karamanlis leads an interim government. Constantin Mitsotakis discusses the transition, reconciliation, and democracy.
Remembering and Forgetting Dictatorship (04:59)
A park is on the site of what was secret police headquarters; former cells behind the park are now a memorial. The 1973 Polytechnic student uprising foreshadows the end of the Colonels' regime; Christos Lazos discusses safeguarding the memory.
Student Perspectives (04:41)
See documentary footage of the Polytechnic student uprising. Current students discuss connecting the past and the present. Commemoration of the uprising ends with the naming of the dead and a demonstration at the American Embassy.
Vigilantism and Repression (06:59)
After the fall of the Colonels, N17 engages in vigilante justice; the group dismantles in 2002. Titos Patrikios returns to the island where he was deported in 1950 and reflects on democracy. "Guernica" immortalizes a Basque town bombed in 1937.
Credits: Never Forget: The Legacy of Dictatorships (01:06)
Credits: Never Forget: The Legacy of Dictatorships
For additional digital leasing and purchase options contact a media consultant at 800-257-5126
(press option 3) or firstname.lastname@example.org.