Outline - Summarizing Data: Lecture 1, Part 2 (00:50)
In this video lecture, Professor Naomi Lowe explains how to summarize data with graphs and tables, discusses distributions, and looks at misleading graphs.
Summarizing Data: Tables & Graphs (05:56)
Pie charts show information in the form of percentages and represent nominal data. Bar charts summarize nominal variables whereas histograms summarize continuous variables. Stem and leaf diagrams are similar to histograms but provided more detail.
Making a Frequency Table (06:29)
The steps for making a frequency table include listing the possible values from highest to lowest, count the scores, determine the frequency, and calculate the frequency percent. Frequency is found by dividing frequency by the total number of observations and multiplying by 100. Lowe demonstrates how to make a frequency table.
Building a Histogram (05:32)
The steps for making a histogram include making a frequency table, listing the values on the x and y-axes, and sketching a bar for each value or group. Lowe demonstrates how to make a histogram.
Histogram Distribution (03:41)
Histograms can have unimodal, bimodal, multimodal, or uniform distributions. The mode is the center where most of the data fall.
Histogram Symmetry and Skew (02:59)
The distribution of a histogram is symmetrical if it is even on both sides. However, some graphs have a positive or negative skew due to outliers.
Normal Distribution (01:56)
A normal histogram distribution has the bell-shaped curve. Normal distributions are symmetrical and unimodal.
Misleading Graphs (04:49)
When analyzing graphs, pay close attention to the intervals on the y-axis, be critical of truncated graphs and exaggeration of proportions.
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