Struggling to Lose Weight (02:38)
Nearly 70% of Americans are overweight or obese. When Cindy Roach married her husband, she weighed 99 pounds. She experimented with fad diets, liposuction, dieting, counting calories, and peels to lose weight gained after her second pregnancy.
Evolution of the Bogalusa Heart Study (02:38)
Dr. Gerald Berenson created the study in conjunction with the National Institutes of Health. Designed to look at all aspects of childhood health and predict future heart disease; 93% of all the children born in the town in 1972 have participated in the study.
Bogalusa Study Landmark Research (02:41)
Kathy Pigott describes how excited she would become at school during the study's biannual exam. Physicians discovered that 20% percent of children who died possessed fat deposits in their coronary arteries. The study followed over 16,000 children as they grew into adulthood.
Relationship to Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease (02:51)
Fat in the abdomen leads to insulin resistance, high blood pressure, hypertension, and diabetes. The Bogalusa Study links obesity in children to high blood pressure in adulthood. Only 7 % of participants who were at a healthy weight as children became obese adults.
Obesity on the Rise (03:20)
Dr. Jack Shonkoff explains social and health consequences of obesity and emphasizes that it is preventable. All economic brackets have experienced higher rates of obesity in recent years.
Genetics and Obesity (02:31)
Dr. Francis Collins explains that genes account for 60-70% of obese adults. David Itschuler describes how becoming overweight is a combination of genetic predisposition, environment, and behavior.
Low Income Populations and Obesity (03:20)
Experts explain the correlation between risk of obesity and diabetes and low income. Michael Nutter describes how one in three children born today will become diabetic during their lifetime; African Americans and Latino children possess a one in two chance.
Back In Bogalusa (04:05)
In 2010, two epidemiologists released a study that revealed 50% of the children in the town were now obese or overweight. Obese children have increased cardiovascular risk factors, hypertension, and asthma. The Lower Mississippi Delta has the highest rates of obesity in the nation.
Comparing Bogalusa's Data to the Nation (02:31)
In the mid-1980s, Bogalusa rates of obesity grew higher than that of the nation. There are comparable levels of obesity in all the ethnic populations across the town. Broyles explains how cities need a societal approach to combating childhood obesity.
Northwestern University Study (05:02)
Dr. Donald Lloyd-Jones performs autopsies on cadavers in order to gain insight into the consequences of obesity. He finds cardiovascular disease, calcification, bypass surgeries, thickened walls, and plaques in overweight hearts. His findings demonstrate how cardiovascular tissue is damaged by poor weight management in children as young as five.
Ideal Cardiovascular Health (02:28)
Seven factors toward ideal cardiovascular health include: optimal cholesterol, normal blood pressure, no diabetes, a lean body mass index, not smoking, pursuing physical activity, and a healthy diet. Less than one percent of the population in the United States possesses ideal cardiovascular health. Roy Agee describes how losing weight helped his musical career and lifestyle.
Abdominal Fat (03:46)
Studies show that individuals who store fat in their abdomen possess increased health risks. Hormones secreted from these fat cells interact detrimentally with the heart and pancreas. Fat cells were once stored in the abdomen to provide an emergency supply of food for warriors and women who were breastfeeding.
Obesity and Liver Disease (02:25)
Traditionally performed to combat Hepatitis, liver transplants now occur due to Cirrhosis. A third of obese children have some form of non-alcoholic liver disease. Dr. David Flum describes how the liver is integral to a healthy metabolic system.
Battling Her Weight (03:00)
Jennifer Ericson participated in a National Institutes of Health study to see how the body changes when obese people gain weight. Francis Collins describes the functions of a liver and how overweight individuals with fatty livers have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
NIH Study (03:16)
Ericson ate at fast food restaurants every day and added an additional 1000 calories per day in order to gain 5% of her body weight. The study shows that she increased her LDL cholesterol by 14%, her tri-glycerides by 30%, and her liver fat by 6%.
Losing Weight (02:33)
Dr. Collins explains how losing weight can improve liver function immediately. Calorie restriction for 48 hours reduces the amount of liver fat by 25%. As soon as Ericson began dieting by eating lean meats, whole grains, and fruits, and vegetables, her metabolic statistics returned to normal.
Obesity Related Health Risks (03:38)
Experts discuss increased health risks including arthritis, cancer, kidney failure, diabetes, heart disease, dementia, and loss of cognitive abilities. Mary Hanley's husband lost his foot because he was overweight.
Diabetes and Obesity (03:36)
Dr. Robert Lustig describes type one and type two diabetes. Dr. Collins explains how fat in the abdomen leads to the body becoming resistant to its own insulin. The Hanleys' weight increased gradually; they now eat chicken and fish instead of red meat.
Visiting the Doctor (03:23)
Diabetes causes cataracts, peripheral neuropathy, infections, and reduced brain function. There is a 50% chance that a person who loses an appendage due to diabetes will need another amputation within five years. The Hanleys vow to keep fighting against the disease.
In Conclusion (04:18)
Experts discuss the ramifications of rampant obesity in the population. The government spends 150 billion dollars a year preventing it. Employees are paying higher premiums to health insurance companies because they are obese. Watch a preview of the next episode.
Credits: The Weight of the Nation: Part 1— Consequences (02:16)
Credits: The Weight of the Nation: Part 1— Consequences
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