Pavlov's Dog (02:56)
In the early 20th century, society, government, and academia pushed psychology away from abstract theories to the experimental realm. Ivan Pavlov established the concept of conditional reflexes through trials with salivating dogs. Behaviorism asserts that free will is an illusion; genetic and environmental factors determine behavior.
Behaviorism Revolution (02:42)
John Watson felt the study of human responses to stimuli was more effective for understanding human behavior. He felt structuralists and functionalists were unable to study mental processes properly. B.F. Skinner's operant conditioning used rats and pigeons to study behavior modification due to organism memory.
Berlin School (03:18)
Learn about the Gestalt Theory; psychologists sought to isolate principles of perception into innate mental laws. Kurt Goldstein saw disease as a state change between the organism and its environment; healing came through adaptation. Kurt Lewin studied group dynamics and developed modern social psychology.
Personality Psychology (04:40)
Personality psychology studies psychological processes comprising an individual. Gordon Allport classified personality dispositions into central, secondary, common, and cardinal traits. Raymond Cattell described 16 personality factors. Karen Horney developed a theory of neuroses, in which an idealized self is never achieved.
Psychology Tools and Techniques (04:04)
Hear how psychologists use the Rorschach and Thematic Apperception Tests to access patient inner thoughts and projections. The U.S. Armed Forces used psychological tests in World Wars I and II to classify new recruits according to intelligence, aptitude, and ability.
Popularizing American Mental Health (02:03)
The invention and deployment of the atomic bomb affected many people psychologically; they sought psychotherapy as a new spiritual healing.
Humanistic Psychology (04:57)
Humanistic psychology emerged as an antidote to psychoanalysis and behaviorism. Hear its five postulates. American psychotherapy developed a "can-do" approach exemplified in Carl Rogers' client-centered therapy that drew on Judeo-Christian values. Learn about Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Fritz Perl's Gestalt therapy, and Viktor Frankl's logotherapy.
Pop Psychology (01:40)
Eric Berne's "Games People Play" became popular in the 1960s. His transactional analysis reinterpreted Freud's psychic states. Albert Ellis developed rational emotive behavioral therapy, using unconditional self-acceptance and stopping self-defeating beliefs; it resembles cognitive therapy.
Cognitive Psychology (01:30)
Cognitive psychology is concerned with how people construct reality from knowledge. It is rooted in Jean Piaget's genetic psychology and also studies cultural patterns outside the psychology field.
Learn about the Phineas Gage case that demonstrated how frontal lobe damage alters personality and behavior. Neuroscience unites biological, psychological, and cultural mechanisms in studying the brain. Changing behavior patterns and altering world view is challenging. Psychopharmacology has helped people improve their moods and lives.
Credits: Ethics, Logic, and Truth: Part 3—History of Psychology (00:35)
Credits: Ethics, Logic, and Truth: Part 3—History of Psychology
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