Evolutionary Theory and Psychology (03:40)
Human psychology evolved from superstition to mysticism and from metaphysics to empiricism. During the Industrial Revolution, psychology branched into subfields reflecting societal changes. Charles Darwin’s ideas made psychologists think about how consciousness helps humans adapt to the environment.
Evolutionary Psychology and Epigenetics (02:58)
Evolutionary psychology is rooted in variation, heritability, and selection principles. Sir Francis Galton invented psychometrics and applied statistical methods to the study of human differences from information collected from surveys and questionnaires. He also coined "nature vs. nurture" and "eugenics."
Developing Modern Psychology (02:43)
Hermann Helmholtz's empirical studies formed a scientific foundation in sensory physiology. Wilhelm Wundt contributed to experimental and cognitive psychologies and developed Psychophysical Parallelism. William James used Darwin's theory of adaptation to the environment to view psychology as both a natural science and a humanistic clinical practice. Hugo Munsterberg created forensic psychology, industrial organizational psychology, and clinical psychology.
Forensic Psychology (02:12)
Forensic psychology applies psychological principles of mental processes to legal proceedings, law enforcement, and criminal justice. Freud said many influences change our memory of an event, affecting witness testimony; learn about Beth Loftus' car accident witness experiments.
American Psychology Contributions (03:00)
Edward Titchener developed structuralism, studying consciousness through its specific components. Functionalism grew from evolutionary theory. Child and adolescent psychology pioneer Stanley Hall coined the phrase storm and stress and founded the first psychology laboratory. Mary Whiton Calkins reconciled structural and functional viewpoints into Self Psychology, comprised of imagination, emotion, and will.
Intelligence Quotient Test (01:34)
Alfred Binet devised tests for Parisian school children and published the first modern intelligence test with Theodore Simon, which became known as the I.Q. test. Henry Herbert Goddard brought it to America and used it to label developmentally disabled children.
Psychology Revolution (04:38)
Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, and Alfred Adler made psychology a 20th century profession. Freud was a neurologist; experts explain his Seduction Theory and Oedipus Complex that childhood trauma leads to neurosis. Learn about the concept of neurosis.
Structural Model of the Psyche (03:02)
Freud provided a model for understanding oneself in relation to the world; hear explanations of the Ego, Id, and Superego concepts. He developed psychoanalysis to treat psychopathology and transition patients from a miserable state to a state of "common unhappiness."
Freud and Jung (02:47)
Carl Jung joined Freud's psychoanalysis circle. Freud was driven by human biology, while Jung believed we are driven by a need for meaning. Learn about his self-realization concept describing introversion and extroversion. He postulated that we interact through sensing, thinking, feeling, intuiting, and transcending.
Jung's Contributions to Psychology (02:00)
Jung's personality types were used to design the Myers-Briggs type indicator. Learn about his contrasexual concept of the anima in men and animus in women. His analytical psychology is still used today.
Alfred Adler (01:39)
Adler sought to explain human behavior as a single force, first described as the Aggression Drive and later described as compensation or a drive for perfection. Teleology refers to being drawn towards goals, purposes and ideals; failures accumulate in an inferiority complex. He saw childhood pampering and neglect as contributing to personality faults.
Credits: Freud, Jung, and Psychoanalysis: Part 2—History of Psychology (00:31)
Credits: Freud, Jung, and Psychoanalysis: Part 2—History of Psychology
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