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Equilibrium and Advanced Thermodynamics (01:52)

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Iron in steel reacts with oxygen to form rust. Pure iron is nearly impossible to find; most exists as iron ore. Separating iron and oxygen requires reversing the spontaneous reaction.

Dynamic Equilibrium (02:57)

Equilibrium does not mean equal parts reactants and products, or that the reaction has stopped. The equilibrium constant is the ratio of product concentration to reactant concentration. K values greater than 1 favor a forward reaction direction, and vice versa.

Le Chatelier's Principle (04:04)

Equilibrium reactions will change concentrations to stay in equilibrium. Iron nitrate and potassium thiocyanate form iron thiocyanate; view what happens when the solution is stressed by adding or removing iron ions.

Counteracting Poison (03:43)

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy reverses carbon monoxide poisoning. Learn about the oxyhemoglobin equilibrium reaction and how carboxyhemoglobin impedes the body's ability to deliver oxygen to cells.

Hyperbaric Chamber (02:36)

Carbon monoxide poison victims should be removed from the source for recovery. Breathing 100% oxygen in a closed system speeds up the CO removal process. Equilibrium reactions allow the body to function on a daily basis.

Pressure and Temperature and Le Chatelier's Principle (04:10)

A syringe contains nitrogen dioxide and dinitrogen tetroxide gases in equilibrium. Pressing on the plunger causes a temporarily darker color, and releasing it causes a lighter color. When heated, the mixture turns dark brown, and when cooled, it lightens.

Haber-Bosch Process (04:09)

In 1905, Sir William Crookes predicted mass starvation due to fertilizer deficits. Haber wanted to combine atmospheric nitrogen with hydrogen to create ammonia; hear how he manipulated the equilibrium reaction to maximize ammonia output.

Mass Producing Ammonia Fertilizer (02:08)

Carl Bosch scaled up Haber's process for factory production. The Haber-Bosch process increased agricultural yields and marked a new industrial era where chemists manipulate equilibrium reactions to create products.

Credits: Equilibrium and Advanced Thermodynamics (00:29)

Credits: Equilibrium and Advanced Thermodynamics

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Equilibrium and Advanced Thermodynamics

Part of the Series : Chemistry: Challenges and Solutions
3-Year Streaming Price: $149.95

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Description

Light a match and chemical change happens in a one-way process: Reactants are transformed into products. Chemical reactions called "equilibrium reactions" operate in both directions: with reactants and products always present. See how chemical equilibrium works, the essential role it plays in the function of the human body, and how it is exploited in ammonia synthesis, which provides food for half the world's population.

Length: 28 minutes

Item#: BVL110256

Copyright date: ©2014

Closed Captioned

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