Segments in this Video

Lewis Structures and Radicals (03:33)


Learn about covalent bonds through a water molecular diagram. Oxygen atoms with an unpaired electron are commonly found in the body, and are extremely reactive. They can harm DNA but are essential for life.

Free Radicals in Cell Replication (01:51)

Understanding free radical reaction can help cancer researchers. The RNR enzyme is essential for cell division and DNA production, and contains one oxygen radical.

RNR Reaction Pathway Data (02:41)

X-ray crystallography is used to study oxygen radical crystals in RNR enzymes. Diffraction patterns reveal electron placement and enable molecule reconstruction.

RNR Reaction Discovery (02:39)

View an explanation of how an oxygen atom moves from the initial site to the active site for DNA synthesis reaction. The free radical travels 35 angstroms, a pathway researchers hope to block to fight cancerous cell division.

Geometry of Molecules (04:27)

Molecules react based on shapes. VSEPR is based on the principle that electrons repel each other. View balloon demonstrations of octahedral, trigonal bipyramidal, tetrahedral, trigonal planar, and linear electron pairs.

Penicillin and VSEPR (04:23)

Learn about Fleming's discovery of bacteria killing mold. Hear how the beta-lactam ring’s desire for a tetrahedral geometrical structure causes it to bind to bacterial enzymes and inhibit their formation.

Designing New Cancer Drugs (02:41)

Researchers are developing new compounds targeting proteins in cancer cells. They work to convert trigonal planar alkene to tetrahedral alkane, a better shape for binding.

Altering Molecular Geometry (03:43)

Witness the process of reacting hydrogen to an alkene, breaking its double bond and converting it to alkane. Polar also predicts whether a compound will bind to a cancer cell protein. Understanding how atoms bond to molecules provides insight into cell reproduction.

Credits: Making Molecules: Chemistry: Challenges and Solutions (00:28)

Credits: Making Molecules: Chemistry: Challenges and Solutions

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Making Molecules: Chemistry: Challenges and Solutions

Part of the Series : Chemistry: Challenges and Solutions
3-Year Streaming Price: $149.95



Visual representations of atoms bonding to form molecules—called Lewis structures—provide information to predict the three-dimensional shapes of molecules using valence shell electron pair repulsion ("VSEPR") theory. The shapes of molecules relates to the effectiveness of important antibiotics such as penicillin. Scientists can manipulate shapes of molecules to help design new cancer-treating drugs.

Length: 28 minutes

Item#: BVL110252

Copyright date: ©2014

Closed Captioned

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