Segments in this Video

Phases Diagram (02:16)


View a graph representing changes between matter phases with pressure and temperature axes. Learn about atom behavior in solids, liquids, and gases.

Gas Model (01:50)

Golf balls represent gas molecules; as the pressure and temperature increase they move faster and the volume increases. Hear how pressure changes affect atom behavior.

Phase Change (02:43)

Dry ice, or solid carbon dioxide, turns directly into gas when it melts. It transitions to liquid under pressure in a vice. The combination of pressure and temperature decide what phase a substance will be in.

Hydrogen Storage (02:21)

Gas powered cars release CO2 into the atmosphere. Hydrogen fuel cells use hydrogen and oxygen to create electricity, releasing water. Hydrogen gas storage isn't economically viable; nanofibers increase pressure and allow more hydrogen atoms in a container.

Creating a Hydrogen Solid (03:38)

Bacterial cellulose is used to make carbon nanofibers that attract hydrogen atoms to their surface, increasing storage capacity. Pressure tests show molecules can increase by a factor of 1000, but 10,000 is needed for fuel cell efficiency.

Gas Laws (02:40)

Robert Boyle discovered the inverse relationship between pressure and volume. Charles' Law states that volume and temperature are directly proportional. Equal gas volumes under the same conditions contain equal particles. The Ideal Gas Law combined these concepts to describe common gas behavior.

Gas Volume and Temperature (01:45)

Liquid nitrogen poured over a helium balloon decreases its volume. It re-inflates when the temperature increases again.

Supercritical Fluid (02:31)

The Ideal Gas Law explains how gases behave in many conditions. If temperatures or pressures are high enough, matter turns into a fourth phase. A company is developing a way to store CO2 underground as a high-density supercritical fluid.

Carbon Dioxide Storage (03:12)

As a supercritical fluid underground, CO2 takes up 1% of the volume as a ground level gas. Ideal geological storage conditions include a sandstone reservoir with an impermeable shale cap rock. Learn about the injection process.

Carbon Dioxide Storage Projections (02:42)

C12 Energy employees run computer simulations of injected CO2 supercritical fluid over time. After 500 years, it floats to the top of the reservoir. Understanding relationships between matter, pressure, volume, and temperature is crucial for learning about chemical reactions.

Credits: The Behavior of Atoms: Chemistry: Challenges and Solutions (00:27)

Credits: The Behavior of Atoms: Chemistry: Challenges and Solutions

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The Behavior of Atoms: Chemistry: Challenges and Solutions

Part of the Series : Chemistry: Challenges and Solutions
3-Year Streaming Price: $149.95



Explores the phases of matter—solids, liquids, and gases—and how particles in a given phase interact with each other. Phase diagrams explain at what temperature and pressure a given substance will be in a solid, liquid, or gas phase. Practical problems, like how to safely store enough hydrogen gas to power an automobile, are solved by understanding the different behaviors of solids, liquids, and gases.

Length: 28 minutes

Item#: BVL110249

Copyright date: ©2014

Closed Captioned

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