Modernization During the Porfiriato (01:11)
At the beginning of the 20th century, under Porfirio Díaz, a peaceful Mexico enjoyed prosperity and modernization as it benefited from foreign capital.
The Intellectual Elite: The Ateneo de la Juventud (03:19)
While most of the Mexican population were illiterate, the young educated elite reacted to the Porfiriato Positivism, forming the Ateneo de la Juventud under the influence of Pedro Henriquez Ureña.
Mexican Artists React to Art of the Porfiriato (01:11)
Mexican artists, like Saturnino Herrán, reacted to the Academic Art of the Porfiriato by moving toward a more subjective and spiritual national conscience.
1910 Centennial Cultural Celebrations (01:30)
The cultural celebrations of 1910, the Centennial of Mexico's Independence, under the auspices of Justo Serra and José Vasconcelos, prefaced the beginning of the end of the Porfirio regime.
Cultural Leaders Split Regarding Madero's Rebellion (02:58)
Many Ateneo youths recognized the benefits of the Porfiriato, José Vasconcelos joined Madero's demands for reelections. Others like José Clemente Orozco feared renewed violence.
Founding of Popular University (02:49)
Followers of Madero from the Ateneo founded Popular University to spread culture to the working classes, but Madero's assassination and Huerta's usurpation shattered their idealism.
Mexican Art, Music, and Architecture Look to Their Roots (03:24)
Ateneo artists experimented with modern and impressionist art at the Santa Anita Academy of Plein Air, while musicians and architects also returned to national themes.
Members of the Ateneo Disperse (06:03)
Some Madero supporters sought self-exile in Europe during the Revolution while José Vasconcelos, Martín Luis Guzmán, and Mariano Azuela tried to describe the civil war from within.
Antonio Caso Continues to Teach in War-Torn Mexico City (04:13)
By 1915, the Ateneo group had dissolved. Cosío Villegas recalls how Antonio Caso continued his mission despite street battles between carrancistas and zapatistas.
Disillusion with the Carranza Regime (01:50)
Despite promises of the revolution, unresolved problems of Mexican workers and peasants disillusioned Ateneo collaborators of the revolution.
Rediscovery of Mexico (03:12)
With peace following the 1917 Constitution and the Presidency of Álvaro Obregón, Saturnino Herrán and poet López Velarde evoked provincial themes. Hear from "Retorno maléfico."
Reevaluation of Indigenous Culture (03:28)
The reassessment of indigenous culture encouraged archaeologist Manuel Gamio to further excavate Teotihuacán. He encouraged the inclusion of the prehispanic in the new nationalism.
Recovery of Mexican Culture After the Revolution (05:17)
Cosío Villegas describes the tragic decade of the Revolution. Mexican artists and writers look back at the havoc of the revolution. José Vasconcelos leads the effort to reeducate and bring culture to the masses.
Credits: Culture in the 1910 Revolution: The Mexican Revolution—Part 5 (01:23)
Credits: Culture in the 1910 Revolution: The Mexican Revolution—Part 5
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