Introduction: Clean: How We Got to Now with Steven Johnson (02:15)
This segment orients viewers to the topic of clean technology with excerpts from the program.
Clean Streets (03:48)
Steven Johnson travels into the San Francisco sewer system. Many of the sewer lines were constructed over 100 years ago.
Mid-19th Century Chicago (03:54)
Human and animal excrement was commonplace in the streets. Ellis Chesbrough used jackscrews to lift the city in 1860, making room for underground sewer systems.
City Revolution (03:33)
After creating the first underground sewer systems, similar strategies were applied to railroads and electricity.
Water Pollution (01:59)
The first sewers in Chicago drained into Lake Michigan. People did not realize how deadly the water could be.
Storm Water (03:39)
Rainwater can overflow the city's sewer. TARP Project Manager Kevin Fitzpatrick explains how the city manages storm runoff.
Beer Benefits (02:19)
In the mid-19th century, people drank beer throughout the day. The brewing process killed bacteria in the water.
Cholera Outbreak (03:05)
Cholera killed many in London during the 19th century. John Snow doubted the belief that cholera spread through the air.
Cholera Transmission (02:09)
John Snow moved into London and worked on the radical idea that cholera spreads through water.
Influential Map (02:47)
John Snow's map revealed that the deaths were concentrated around one water pump. His map revolutionized epidemiology.
Public Water Supply (02:47)
Today, we have the ability to keep water clean. Johnson visits a local water park.
Learn how the water park recycles and cleans the water, making it safe for public use.
Toilet Water (02:25)
When toilets were first introduced, they overwhelmed sewer systems and made drinking water dangerous.
John Leal (03:27)
Leal experimented with ways to kill bacteria in water. He initiated the use of chlorine in drinking water.
Mass Chlorination (01:56)
Leal's chlorination project resulted in a reduction of deaths and an introduction of public water parks.
Annie Murray, the wife of a Clorox investor, pushed marketing chlorine bleach for home use.
Ultra Clean Revolution (02:25)
In the 1920s, there was a big push for Americans to use new cleaning products. Some people believe that the revolution went too far.
Extreme Clean (04:24)
Johnson visits a Texas Instrument microchip fabrication plant. He undergoes a decontamination process to eliminate particles.
Access to Clean Water (02:12)
Clean technologies transformed our world. Yet, every year many die as a result of no safe water access. Johnson reflects on the clean water revolution.
Credits: Clean: How We Got to Now with Steven Johnson (00:30)
Credits: Clean: How We Got to Now with Steven Johnson
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